Studies the influence of social factors on human behavior
Scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context
Studies the influence of individual factors (i.e. personality) on human behavior
Broad research steps
Research question, search the literature, generate hypotheses, design study (operationally define variables), and analyze and make conclusions.
A testable prediction about the conditions under which an event will occur.
Type of study that measures variables without manipulating any of them. It measures relationships of variables.
Type of study in which variables are manipulated and certain variables are controlled for. Participants are randomly assigned to conditions. It examines cause and effect chains.
Condition in which the independent variable is "added".
Condition in which there is an absence of the independent variable.
Knowing ourselves through introspection and self-awareness, self perception, and social comparison. Guides our cognition and behavior.
Way to acquire knowledge in which we look inward and examine our own thoughts and feelings.
Nisbett & Wilson (1977)
"There may be little or no direct introspective access to higher order cognitive processes."
Nisbett & Wilson
Introspection does not lead to accurate self-knowledge because we don't know the reasons behind our behaviors and attitudes.
Theories that we have to explain our behavior and attitudes.
Reasons-generated attitude change
When you start listing reasons and you learn to like the object more.
Wilson et al. (1993)
Claude Money Painting Study. Two conditions. Condition 1 describes for liking or not liking a poster (introspect). Condition 2: Describe reasons for choosing their major. Three weeks later, they measured liking of the poster they chose. Participants who introspected why they liked the poster were less satisfied with their choice. Introspection can cause dissatisfaction with one's choice.
Theory when attention is directed at the self, we evaluate our behavior to our internal standards and values. When self-awareness is increased, you act in more desirable ways.
We infer our attitudes and feelings by observing our behavior. Developed by Darryl Bem. We observe our attitudes and feelings when things are uncertain or ambiguous.
When you underestimate the influence of intrinsic motivations because you receive an extrinsic reward for a certain behavior. Moderators include> Rewards will help when 1) If no initial interest in activity, 2) If reward is performance-contingent, 3) if highly motivated.
Lepper, Greene, & Nisbett, 1973
Study in which children were asked to draw with markers and were in one of three conditions: 1) Expected reward, 2) Unexpected reward, 3) No reward. Liking of markers measured as percentage of time marker used.
Social Comparison Theory (Festinger)
We learn about ourselves by comparing ourselves to others when there are no objective standard to measure ourselves against and when we are uncertain.
When you compare yourself to someone better than you in a specific domain.
When you compare yourself to someone worst than you in a specific domain.
When you compare yourself to someone better than you are, then you will get motivated to do better.
Wheeler et al. (1969)
Study in which participant's score on a positive trait (intelligence flexibility) among other participants. Your score was mid range and people were given option of looking at low or high scores.
Blanton et al. (1999)
Study in which researchers studied 9th grade students and listed students with whom they preferred comparing their grades. Those that made upward comparisons resulted better outcomes.
Pyszczynski et al. (1985)
Study where he manipulated self-esteem by telling them they did well on a test.
Wood, Taylor, & Lichtman (1985)
Study in which cancer patients who compared themselves to someone more ill than them were more optimistic.
Refers to feelings of self worth and is believed to universal need.
Terror Management Theory
Theory proposed by Greenberg et al. Believes self-esteem serves as an anxiety-buffering function.
Theory proposed by Leary in which humans have need to belong and that self-esteem is an indicator of social acceptance and it is functional.
Tesser et. al (1988)
Self evaluation maintenance theory that states that self-esteem is maintained when close others success, we distance ourselves from them or change the important of the domain. If close others is better in a domain you care about then you will feel bad. If close others is better in a domain not important to you then you will be happy for your close other.
Cialdini et al. (1976)
A field experiment in which they looked at clothes on Monday during football season. If school won, students more likely to wear shirt than if the team lost. When your team wins, you want to associate yourself with the winning team so you feel good about yourself.
Personal/Dispositional (internal attributions)
A self-serving bias when you attribute a cause for something internally, usually done when something goes well.
Situational (external) distribution
A self-serving bias when you attribute a cause for something externally, usually done when something does NOT go well.
Over judge their abilities
Self-serving bias in which a person thinks they are good at everything.
Bias blind spot
Self-serving bias in which you are aware these biases exist, but you say you don't have them.
how people think about the social world
Tendency to take credit for success (by making internal attributions) buy deny blame for failure (by making external attributions). This is used to maintain high self esteem.
Process by which people explain causes of behavior either their own or other people. It helps us understand others and have control over what happens.
Type of attribution in which behavior is due to person's attitude, character, and personality. Often automatic.
Type of attribution in which behavior is due to the situation.
Correspondent Inference Theory (Jones & Davies, 1965)
Theory that posits 3 factors that influence people's attributions of other's behaviors: 1) choice: is the behavior freely chosen, 2) noncommon effects: are the effects caused by one specific factor, 3) consequences: are the consequences low in social desirability.
Fundamental attribution error
When we make an internal attribution when making attributions for other's behavior. People overestimate the extent to which other's actions are due to their underlying personality dispositions or traits. We underestimate the "power of the situation" the person was in.
What is noticeable to us in a given situation.
The idea that we don't like to think that much when we don't have to.
Actor Observer Effect (contains the fundamental attribution error)
When we tend to make dispositional attributions when making attribution's for other's behaviors but make situational attributions for one's own behavior.
Kelley's Covariation Theory
Theory in which we look at more than one observation. Looks at consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus.
Depression and Attribution
Depressed individuals make self-defeating attributions. They make internal attributions for negative outcomes and external attributions for positive outcomes.
Romantic relationships and attribution
Satisfaction with relationship is correlated with attributions made about spouse's behavior. Satisfied spouses make internal attributions for positive behaviors and external attributions for negative behaviors.
Mental shortcuts used to make judgements.
A type of mental shortcut based on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.
The tendency to overestimate the extant to which others share one's own opinions, attitudes, values, beliefs
Tendency to ignore base rate information and be influenced by distinctive features of the case.
When we think something applies to us, we think of representative example that allows us to fit the description.
Baby face overgenarilization
When you extend baby face effect to adults.
When we see someone attractive, we make positive attributions to everything about them.
Tendency for recently used words, ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information.
Bargh, Chen, Burrows (1996)
Study in which participants in which they were primed with words related to elderly tended to walk slower.
Mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world.
Change in behavior due to real or imagined influence of other people.
Light bulb study that illustrated conformity effect.
One reason why people conform in which individuals need to know what's right.
Reason for confirming because of the need to be accepted. They went along with the group. Conformity rate groups up when group is 4-5. The group is important. No ally in group.
When you write answers on piece of paper. When an ally is a confederate. Confederates were outgroup members. If the task is important (high motivation to be correct)
Studied consequences of nonconformity. The person who went againts the norm were ignored, assigned to boring tasks, was eliminated from group.
Bond & Smith (1996)
Meta-analysis of Asch studies conducted in 17 studies. Conformity occurred in all studies. Collectivistic cultures conformed more than less collectivistic cultures.
Conformity to promote socially beneficial behavior.
Description of what people normally do.
Requiring people what ought to be done.
Changes in behavior due to a direct request.
Langer et al (1978)
Study on mindless compliance that uses xerox machines.
People will comply more to strange or unusual request.
Underylying principles of compliance (cialdini)
Friendship/liking, commitment/consistency, scarcity, and reciprocity.
Princiciple of compliance in which we comply to friends and people we like.
Principle of compliance in which we comply to requests that are consistent with the position or action that we have committed to previously.
Principle of compliance we comply to requests that focus on scarcity
Principle of compliance in which we comply to someone who has done us a favor in the past.
Door in the face technique
Begin with a large request and when it's rejected, retreats to a smaller request. Consistent with the reciprocity principle.
Foot in the door technique
Begin with a small request and when it's granted, ask for a large request. Related to the principle of commitment/consistency.
After the request has been accepted, it is changed to be less attractive.
That's not all technique
Adding additional benefits before agreement to request. Related to reciprocity principle.
When less powerful person in an unequal power relationship submits to the demands of the more powerful person.
Yale study that explores obedience.
Out of 40 male participants, no one stopped prior to level 20 (300 volks, with 120 learning as heart condition). 14 defied experimenter after 300 volts. 26 went all the way to 450 volts.
What made people obey in Milgram experiment
1.Person giving order was from a legitimate institution. 2) Authority of the experimenter 3) Physical distance to participant 4) Confidence of the one giving orders 5) experimenters take responsibility 6) Gradual escalations of orders from low level horribleness to high level
Study that partially replicates Milgram study. Participants were prescreened and were told they could leave and stop at any time. Sample was wider range in age and ethnicity.
Meeus & Raaijmakers (1986)
Studied psychological obedience where participants are asked to make 15 negative remarks during selection test. 22 out of 24 participants made all 15 negative remarks.