Bmsc200 Water

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  1. What are waters active roles in biological systems?
    Water is a participant in many biochemical reactions
  2. What are waters passive roles in biological systems?
    The structures of biomolecules (proteins, membranes, nucleic acids) are in response to their interaction with water
  3. Why is water a dipole?
    • O has  partial (–) charge
    • H has partial (+) charge
  4. Hydrogen Bonds
    • -Electrostatic interaction between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen linked to a second electronegative atom (oxygen, nitrogen, flourine)
    • -1/25 the strength and double the length of a covalent bond
    • -Stronger when the electronegative atom is aligned with the hydroxyl than at an angle
  5. How many Hydrogen Bonds can a water molecule make?
    • -4
    • -Water can donate two hydrogen bonds and accept two hydrogen bonds.
  6. What contributes to waters high heat of vaporization and high specific heat capacity?
    The large number of hydrogen bonds 
  7. What are Amphipathic molecules?
    • molecules that have hydrophobic chains and ionic or polar
    • ends.(lipids)
  8. What is the Hydrophobic effect
    the exclusion of nonpolar substances by water (critical for protein folding and membrane formation) 
  9. What types of molecules are most soluble in water?
    molecules that are ionic, polar(have a high polar group to non polar group ratio), or have high Hydrogen bonding capability
  10. How does water ionize?
    • Pure water consists of a low concentration of hydronium ions Image Upload 1 and an equal concentration of hydroxide ionsImage Upload 2
    • Image Upload 3
  11. What characterizes Acids?
    • -They have more than 10-7M of [H+]
    • -They have a pH below 7
    • -They donate Protons (they are positively charged)
  12. What characterizes Bases?
    • -They have less than 10-7M of [H+]
    • -They have a pH above 7
    • -They accept Protons (they are negatively charged, proton defficient)
  13. What is a Buffer?
    • -a solution that resists ph change with the addition of
    • acid or base. 
    • -Buffers arise from weak acids and bases
    • -required to maintain physiological pH in cells and tissues
  14. What are the two negatively charged ions in biomolecules?
    Nitrogen and oxygen
  15. How is pH found?
    Image Upload 4

    Image Upload 5
  16. How many Hydrogen ions are at the neutral pH?
  17. A difference of one pH is a difference of how many [H+]?
    10 times the [H+]
  18. How do strong acids/bases and weak acids/bases dissociate differently in water?
    • strong acids/bases dissociate completely
    • weak acids/bases do not dissociate completely and the extent of dissociation can be quantified with Image Upload 6
  19. What is pKa?
    • -the pH that the acid can donate a proton, the lower the pKa the stronger the acid
    • Image Upload 7
    • Image Upload 8
  20. What is Ka?
    • Ka is the equilibrium constant
    • Image Upload 9
  21. How do weak acids Dissociate in water?
    • Image Upload 10
    • [HA] weak acid
    • [A-] conjugate base
  22. what is the size of a buffering region?
    • 2pH
    • Image Upload 11
  23. When does pH=pKa?
    when [A-]=[HA]
Card Set:
Bmsc200 Water
2012-10-20 00:17:24
Bmsc200 midterm1 Water

Bmsc200 Water
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