APES

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Author:
kamanwoo
ID:
177514
Filename:
APES
Updated:
2012-10-14 03:02:49
Tags:
Chapter 14
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Description:
Water
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  1. deals with properties, distribution and ciruclation of water on below earth's surface and in the atmosphere.
    hydrologist
  2. time a molecule of water spends in the ocean before evaporating and rejoining water cycle = 3000 years
    average residence time
  3. -glaciers, snow, rivers & streams, lakes & ponds, wetlands, oceans
    -replenished by runoffs
    surface water
  4. an area drained by a river
    everything goes to the same point
    watershed
  5. drained by LA river
    emptied in the  LBC
    Los Angeles Water Shed
  6. US Biggest Watershed
    always flooded
    base of watershed is where?
    • Mississippi River Watershed
    • New orleans= base of watershed
  7. area where a river would flood
    75% of fresh water =ice or snow
    • Watershed Flood Plains
    • ex. Glaciers, Ice and Snow
  8. Antartic glaciers makes up how much ice in the world?
    85%!
  9. Which glacier has melted?
    • Muir Glacier, Alaska
    • Southern Cascade Glacier, Washington 1928 --> 2003 melted
  10. carry water to ocean (runoff)
    rivers and streams
  11. how much water pass a point in a given time period
    discharge
  12. small, shallow temp. or perm water w/ surface plant growth
    ponds
  13. inland depressions holding water year round; up to 5000 ft. deep
    lakes
  14. base of watershed
    benefits: slows H2O, enhances infiltration into aquifers, home to migrated birds, fish breeding grounds
    • Wetlands AKA Bogs, Swamps, marshes 
    • ex. Balona Wetlands
  15. 97% of all liquid water = 3% salinity 
    moderates earth's temp.
    high specific heat
    oceans
  16. zones of ocean
    • abyssal: dark empty
    • bathyal: middle
    • euphatic: the upper level that receive light
  17. stored water from percolation forms aquifers 
    ground water systems
  18. pools under ground
    recharged by rain/snow melt
    aquifers
  19. porous rock above, clay below
    continualy replenished from surface water above
    unconfined aquifer
  20. ground water between impermeable layers of rock
    trapped, under pressure = slowly recharged by water far away
    has better water!
    confined (artesian)
  21. too little water
    historically small annual precipitation
    Golbi Desert and Sahara Desert
  22. H2O is drawn faster than replaced
    watertable falls, wells dry up 
    will occur when removing more H2O than is "recharged" by rain/snowmelt
    overdraft
  23. depleted due to agriculture
    supplies H2O to 80% of people living here
    corn and wheat farmers
    good example of tragedy of the Common 
    Ogallala Aquifer
  24. problems of aquifer depletion
    overdraft causes porous formations to collapse
    subsidence
  25. example of problems of aquifer depletion
    • San Joaquin Valley has sunk 10 m
    • Gautemala City 2010 sink hole
  26. udnerground cavern or channels collapse
    causes death of aquifer
    Sink holes
  27. saltwater = more dense than fresh
    continual fresh water forces back salt water
    when fresh water is reduced, salt water can intrude into aquifer
    saltwater intrusion
  28. buildup of salt that never washed away 
    may render land unfit for crop production if not heavily regulated
    salinization
  29. complete heavily with agriculturer for water 
    built aqueducts to transport water from distances
    cities and industry
  30. Remove salt from H2O by boiling and recondensing (adding cold)
    very expensive
    Distillation
  31. 2 countries that uses desalination
    ALL water in Oman and Bahrain goes  through desalination because they are in the desert location and they are small and rich country
  32. forces salt water through a membrane impermeable to salt
    reverse osmosis
  33. problems with desalination
    • 1. expensive to operate and maintain 
    • 2. large input of energy required
    • 3. excess salts go where?
  34. carry fresh water to places in need
    harvesting icebergs
  35. use dry ice or Kl2 crystals to cause rain to precipitate out of clouds
    takes H2O out of clouds that would fall else where
    can lead to drought?
    possible contamination?
    seeding clouds
  36. what is Delivery 1?
    • Colorado River Aqueduct
    • approximately 60% delivered from river
  37. Delivery 2?
    • Los Angeles Aqueduct
    • about 30% delivered from here
    • they receive it from Sierra Nevade Mt. Range snow melt
    • LA diverts fresh water that should go to Mono Lake thus this creates high salinity
  38. Delivery 3?
    • LA groundwater
    • 10% from here
    • recharge with LA rain
  39. water purification?
    • Catalina Island
    • Chino Island
    • San Bernardino

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