Psychology Chapter 5

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Psychology Chapter 5
2012-10-16 18:07:28

psychology ch 5
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  1. Sensation
    the process that detects stimuli from your body and your environment
  2. Perception
    the process that organizes stimuli into meaningful objects and events
  3. Form Perception
    the process by which sensations are organized into meaningful shapes and patterns
  4. Figure-Ground Relationship
    when you focus on an object it stands out from its surroundings
  5. Figure
    is what you focus on
  6. Ground
    everything else
  7. Similarity
    you group objects that are similar together
  8. Proximity
    group nearby objects
  9. Continuity
    perceive straight or curving lines as continuous, flowing patterns
  10. Connectedness
    similiar objects are linked as a single unit
  11. Closure
    close the gaps in a figure and percieve it as a whole
  12. Common Fate
    similar objects move together in the same direction
  13. Depth Perception
    the ability to perceive objects three-dimensionally
  14. Binocular Cues
    depth cues that require information form both eyes
  15. Monocular Cues
    depth cues that require information from only one eye
  16. Interposition
    • important monocular cue
    • when one object blocks your view of another, you perceive the partially hidden object as more distant
  17. Familiar Size
    • important monocular cue
    • familiar objects that cast small retinal images are perceived as distant, objects that make large retinal images are perceived as near
  18. Relative Size
    • important monocular cue
    • if you assume that two objects are similar in size, you perceive that object with the larger retinal image as being closer
  19. Height in the Field of View
    • important monocular cue
    • objects you see closer to the horizon are perceived as farther away 
  20. Texture Gradients
    • important monocular cue
    • objects that are farther away change in their surface texture from rough, clear features to fine, unclear features
  21. Atmospheric Blur
    • important monocular cue
    • you perceive objects that appear to be hazy as farther away than sharp, clear objects
  22. Linear Perspective
    • important monocular cue
    • when something converges or comes together you percieve the convergence as increasing distance
  23. Light and Shadow
    • important monocular cue
    • brighter objects are closer
    • different degrees of light and shadow on an object provides clues about the object's three-dimensional shape
  24. Motion Parallax
    • important monocular cue
    • a change in position of an object caused by motion
    • driving in a car: closer objects move behind you, further away objects slow and move in your direction
  25. Perceptual Constancy
    • percieving objects as not changing even though there is constantly changing sensory information
    • size consistency
    • shape consistency
  26. Perceptual Set
    • an expectation that creates a tendency to interpret sensory information in a particular way
    • influenced by your culture and experiences
  27. Perceptual Illusion
    a misperception of physical reality caused by misapplluing one or more perceptual principles
  28. Mieller-Lyer Illusion
    • misperceiving the length of lines when either inward or outward facing "wings" are placed on the ends of the lines
    • fashion designers rely on this principle to make women's legs appear longer when wearing high-cut bathing suits
  29. The Ponzo Illusion
    an example of misapplying the momcular distance cure of linear perspective
  30. Stroboscopic Movement
    the illusion of movement produced by a rapid pattern of stimulation of different parts of the retina
  31. The Moon Illusion
    When the moon appears to be about 11/times larger when near the horizon than when high in the sky
  32. Subliminal Perception 
    the processing of information that is below your threshold of conscious awareness
  33. Extrasensory Perception 
    the ability to perceive events in the world without using the normal senses
  34. Parapsychology
    the field that studies ESP and other paranormal phenomena