peripheral nervous system part 1

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peripheral nervous system part 1
2012-10-14 15:37:33
Pharm tech

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  1. Define Efferent Nerves
    Nerves that transmit messages from the CNS to the rest of the body
  2. Define Afferent Nerves
    Nerves that send messages back to the CNS
  3. Sympathetic Nerves
    • "Fight or Flight"
    • Nerves which facilitate mobilization of the body for quick action
    • The chemical messenger is Norepinephrine or epinephrine
  4. sympathetic stimulation of the heart
    increased heart rate/impulses
  5. sympathetic stimulation of the lungs
    bronchial relaxation
  6. sympathetic stimulation of the blood vessels
  7. sympathetic stimulation of the Gi tract 
    decreased movement
  8. sympathetic stimulation of the GU tract
    • (detrusor) - relaxation (holds urine)
    • (Sphincter) - Contraction (holds urine)
  9. Parasympathetic Nerves
    • "Feed & breed"
    • Nerves which direct restorative and conservative processes
    • The chemical messenger is Acetylcholine
  10. parasympathetic stimulation of the GI tract
    increased movement
  11. parasympathetic stimulation of the heart
    decreased heart rate/inpulse conduction
  12. parasympathetic stimulation of the blood vessels
  13. parasympathetic stimulation of the lungs 
    increased mucus
  14. parasympathetic stimulation of the eye
    decreased intraocular pressure
  15. parasympathetic stimulation of the GU tract 
    • (detrusor) - contraction (urination)
    • (sphincter) - relaxation (urination)
  16. Sympathomimetic Agent uses 
    • Hypertension
    • Shock
    • Heart block
    • Asthma
    • Decongestant
    • Depression
    • The effects of these agents are complex and depend upon the specific receptor where the drugs exert their action.
  17. Sympathomimetic Agent side effects
    • High blood pressure
    • Increased heart rate
    • Depends on the receptor site where drugs exert effects
  18. Sympatholytic (Adrenergic Blocking) Agents Uses:
    • Hypertension
    • Heart disease
    • Migraine headaches
  19. Sympatholytic (Adrenergic Blocking) Agent Mechanism of Action
    • Oppose the action of the natural messengers, epinephrine and Norepinephrine, as their receptor sites
    • Often referred to as adrenergic antagonists (blockers)
  20. Sympatholytic (Adrenergic Blocking) Agent Side Effects
    • Dizziness
    • Fainting
    • Nasal stuffiness
  21. B-1 receptors affect the
  22. B-2 receptors affect the 
  23. Parasympathomimetics (Cholinergic) Agent Uses
    • Glaucoma
    • Bladder problems
    • Gastrointestinal problems
    • Alzheimer's disease
  24. Parasympathomimetics (Cholinergic) Agent Mechanism of Action
    • Salvation
    • Lacrimation
    • Urination
    • Defecation
    • Mimic actions of Acetylcholine
    • Enhance the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
    • Opposes the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
    • May be direct action on cholinergic receptors or an indirect action through inhibition of enzymes that destroy Acetylcholine
  25. Parasympathomimetics (Cholinergic) Agent side effects
    • Diarrhea
    • Bradycardia
    • Miosis
    • Decreased blood pressure
    • Bronchoconstriction
    • Sweating
  26. Parasympatholytic (Anticholinergic) Agents uses
    • Anti-spasmodics
    • Anti-Parkinsonism
    • Bronchial disorders
    • Eye exams
    • Motion sickness
    • Treatment of overactive bladder
  27. Parasympatholytic (Anticholinergic) Agents side effects
    • Urinary retention
    • Tachycardia
    • Dry mouth
    • Constipation
    • Mydriasis
  28. Parasympatholytic (Anticholinergic) Agents mechanism of action
    • Inhibit or reverse the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
    • Bind with the cholinergic receptors and prevent binding of Acetylcholine (they are antagonists)
  29. Neuromuscular Blocking Agent uses
    Preoperative skeletal muscle relaxation
  30. Neuromuscular Blocking Agent mechanism of action
    • Blocks the transmission of nerve impulses to skeletal muscles resulting in paralysis of skeletal muscle
    • There is a narrow therapeutic index with these agents.  When these drugs are used, life sustaining respiratory support equipment must be available.
  31. Local Anesthetic Uses
    minor surgery
  32. Local Anesthetic mechanism of action
    Block conduction of impulses along nerves and prevents the sensation of pain from reaching brain
  33. Local Anesthetic side effects