History 167 Midterm
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Humans raced & classed. Begin England, transfered to Colonies. Gender is a category of historical analysis. It is social roles which are raced and classed.
Native American/European expansive trade network. small pox pandemic/other diseases which decimated tribed. Cultural and biological exchange, plants, animals, technology and diseases. Eastern to Midwest US. 1630 Iriquios 50% dead. Largest human die off in history. Native women lost rights. The die off, weakened the tribes and forever changed their in the Americas.
“custom of the country”
Indigenous women/European Hudson Bay Co /. Fur trade men. European married native women to increase fur trade. Not church sanctioned or a legitimate marriage. Metis – mixed blood. Euro women pushed natives aside. Native women viewed as a trade asset later cast away
legal status of a woman, under the protection of their husband. no legal persona. The status a woman acquires upon marriage under common law. The property belongs to man. C17 to late C19.Culture legitimizes the reduction in women’s rights.
A witches power to inflict harm on others through supernatural means.NE C17, Fear of women gaining power.
children inherited fathers status. Social class based on husbands. Their race was constructed at least partially through the top law. social system male acts as the primary authority figure central to social organization, and where fathers hold authority over women, children, and property. 1662 Patriarchy strengthened power of the men. socially and legally reduced woman rights in the family.
Feme-sole trader acts
women mainly in port towns. Women were given more power to act economically for their families while their husbands were gone (sailors gone for long periods of time).late C17. This compensated for what coverture did. Women started gaining economic power and freedom.
Indentured. Impropriety or field work. Not good wives. They were first Native Americans, then indentured women/slaves. 17C. Created hierarchies withinthe gender classes.
The ideal of competency: the self sufficient household is exaggerate/mythologized. Self sufficient communities were more likely than individual families. The competency ideal wasnot realistic which caused women to participate in the marketplace in order tomaintain household.
C17 Woman economic activities. marketplace, especially in the port cities. Socioeconomic unit was different from the patriarchal family. developed social relationships: use your access to credit to help other women. Enslaved women could take part in these relationships. Economic control witch deals washing and mending.
1700s post metipausal women. statues to regulate the midwife role. The government standing in to regulate. NE & NY. Helped to regulate a tradeperformed by women. The statue created fairness among classes of people.
“taking the trade”
18C Widwives or doctors would provide potion for miscarriage before baby moved. length women were willing to go through to abort. Woman taking their bodies into their own hands instead. Feared the socio repercussions of having a baby out of wetlock.
Post revolution Independence, self control, sensibility contractual equity change. The revolution lowered the birthrate after. Fertility and pregnancy changing ideas in 1760-1820. Pregnancy determined as unnatural state. Novels and culture of sensibility. There was a woman’s civilizing project. Family planning and class of conscience. Restricted family size, lead by women: men joined 1790’s. Birthrate drops, demographers, economists refer to as a fertility transition. Pre-revolution Wealth availability. Autonomy. Lying in. Embarrassed if had no children. Prevailing social inequalities. Paying the nursing’s (people gave money for birthing) Post revolution = Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Companion marriage for love. Transition in fertilityways of thinking for women.
1760-1820 late C18, early C19. Post revolution. gifts to baby, welcome little stranger, give birth, baby gift to family, looking for professional to deliver, restraint and self control in favor, reproduction replacing next generation to uphold federation, control fertility prudent virtue, private fulfillment of marriage contract. Breeding associated with livestock and the poor. Breading is not procreation. A change in terms used to describe families offspring from breeding to procreation.
1775 pre-revolution/NC Edenton Patriotic Guild of women, composed and signed Edenton resolve. The resolve included boycotting all British goods. Rational, political and luminal. They could not sustain position. The British hardened on colonists with violence. 1775 mob attacked woman loyalists. Woman’s first political act in saying NO!
19C Emphasize education forwomen. Burden on woman because men haveextra time. Elites frown on educated women. Their context was derived fromreligion and willing to do their civic duties. Instilling moral values inchildren. An attitude toward women roles. Civic duty, reinforcing women separate sphere from the public role of men, and encouraged the education of woman. Abigail Adams.
“Playing the lady”
1620-1865 Slavery. Mystery of woman body, fanning reproductive problems. Most masters didn’t challenge. Illness riddled. black woman complications pregnancy more so than white woman. outsmarted the slave owners because of their lack of knowledge of the female body. Men segregating woman, and women slaves perpetuating the belief.
1620-1865 the south. Mulato could pass as white. Mulatos could have a highersocial status if they could pass for white.
1836-37 Grimke came from a prosperous slave owning family. Close tie between abolition and woman’s rights. Grimke called upon women to influence as sisters, wives…. Read, pray, speaking about it, acting against it. Said inherited slavery could not be justified biblically. She felt morally bound to make her sentiments known. Women must do something. Beecher responded by saying the immediate response is irresponsible and emancipation must be gradual. Condemns Grimke publically. Says to fight in peace through husband. Beecher says improper/worsen slavery. She was really worried men would shut down education for women and would say once educated they would be radicalized. Publicized debate by womenthemselves over how women should act in society. Publically debated.
Women’s Rights Convention
1851 Ohio . First Women’s rightsconvention, topic of womans rights to vote. Early recognition on theconnection between minority rights and women rights.
1865 post civil war. An agreement between former slave owners and former slave children’s parents to the children to work for the former slave owners to gain a trade skill. The apprentice agreements made the slave dependent on their relationships. It was another word for slavery.
Post Civil War, Federal Govt. Bureau that provided aid to former slaves in the form of food, healthcare and shelter. Plus reunited familes. The first social welfareagency initiated by Lincoln.
Post Civil War, Freedmen, South, Agreement with the landowner and the former slaves. worst possible experience of farming. Grow meet quota. No tools, must borrow. Black women had to farm to make ends meet. Black men upset about this because it did not mirror the white social convention of the time. Black me upset about black women working in fields and not able to mirror the white women staying at home.
1820 Post Civil War Piety – religious republican motherhood. Purity – sexual chastity,weapon to men, guarded virginity. Domesticity: woman’s place in home. CatherineBeecher book, women busy with tasks, needs protector. Submissiveness: only woman, passive, submitto faith, husbands, obedient. More gender segregation.Changing ideas on sex.
Post Civil War. Men work, woman stay at home. Changes in family not economic unit. Privacy. Home isolated from community. Value of love, honor, loyalty, and faithfulness were foremost. Women were weaker, corset, 15” waist, smelling salt, smaller brain, menstruation a periodic illness, more irritable nervous system, disease headache caused by imbalance of reproductive system, Phrenology, bumps on skill to determine women more inclined to child behaviors. Limited amount of energy due to learning and sex, lose life force due to semen.Idealogy: Defined female and male roles. Men breadwinner, woman keep home as a separate sphere (weaker). Piety, purity, domesticity, submissiveness.
1900-30 The wage should be enoughto support the entire family made by the man. Justified lower wages for women. Led to the wage gap.
1911 idea of Skilled & unskilled labor. Historically lower paying for women, temp women, perm men.Jobs for women were unskilled and replaceable, therefore justifying the lower wage through US.
Uprising of the Twenty Thousand
1909 NY City 20000 (Yiddish) Eastern European and Jewish women. 11 week strike wanted to show male leadership they were a force to be reckoned with. Wanted to join the AFL. Only some demands were met, brought woman’s right issues to the forefront.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
1911 NY 146 women died 1911. factory with mostly women caught on fire. Bad conditions, fire broke out on top floors. Doors were locked because of break rules. Garment factory, very combustible. 146 out of 500 died terrible deaths. Brought woman worker rights to the forefront.
Lochner vs. New York
1904 Lochner challenges the 60hr weeks/ 10 hr day in supreme court. 14th amendment protected the bakery. NY lost. 14th amendmentbecame a labor law.
Muller vs. Oregon
1908 Oregon Over worked females damage reproductive system according Brandice Brief. 20hrs a day. Established that women need special protections. Woman not equal to men. The pro protected women. The con, reinforces the wage gap and gender roles.
Trace the changes in women’s autonomy (1.(of a country or region) The right or condition of self-government, esp. in a particular sphere. from early colonial days until the 1910s. Did demographics, work culture, or religion have the biggest effect in women’s lives? Use at least three specific examples to support your answer.
- Point 1: Columbian Exchange. Indigenous women had power before Europeans arrived. NatWom used as trade assets. Demographics changed due to die off. Married Euro traders. Marriage not sanctioned. Later cast aside w/arrival of EuroW.
- Point 2: Covertures. legal status of a woman, under the protection of their husband. no legal persona. The status a woman acquires upon marriage under common law. The property belongs to man. C17 to late C19.Culture legitimizes the reduction in women’s rights. Puritan women had a lower social ranking than men. Religion played a big role.
- Point 3: AA women, had no rights. 1620-1865 Slavery. Mystery of woman body, fanning reproductive problems. Most masters didn’t challenge. Illness riddled. black woman complications pregnancy more so than white woman. outsmarted the slave owners because of their lack of knowledge of the female body. Men segregating woman, and women slaves perpetuating the belief.
How did the experiences of slave women differ from those of slave men? What strategies or techniques for survival were available to women? Draw from both the readings and the lectures to answer the question.
Point 1: AA men mainly brought over starting in 1620. Men shackled/lower parts of boat. Women could roam. 1/3 men died. Brutal treatment by officers to women. Women tried tossing captain. 1721 crew of Robert attached by 1 woman 2 men killed several sailors.
Point 2: Slave women were more likely not to run away because of having children, while slave men had little ties to hold them from running. Captain blamed women for mutiny.Slave master leverage w/kids. 20-30% women escaped. Harriett Jacobs escaped, watched kids from peep hole 7 yrs. Whereas men escaped to north for freedom.
Point 3: Slave women were usually kept to housework duties, washing laundry while slave men worked in the fields. Example from reading: Cleaner, higher standard of living domestic work. Men lower status and living conditions in fields. Women less valuable than men because of field work. Women bought at lower prices. Women out live men 29-34.
How did the idea of ‘separate spheres’ affect women’s lives? Did economic changes confirm or undermine separate spheres ideology? Did it enhance or diminish women’s political opportunities?
- Point 1: Women considered weaker (corset), menstruation periodic illness, more irritable nervous system. Limited amount of energy, lost life force through semen. smaller brains, inferior to me, bumps on skull show women more inclined to child behavior (phrenology)
- Point 2: Economic changes undermined women in the workforce. Some would only work until they got married. Seasonal/temp work. Family wage. Women likely not to rock boat. Women took night shift/4.5 hrs of sleep/cared for family.
- Point 3: Grimke/Beecher debate/women in home belief. Beecher argued men might take away education if irritated. Beecher believed in ideal woman home.
How have laws and culture shaped women’s opportunities for independence? Has one (laws vs. culture) been more progressive than the other? Use at least three specific examples to support your answer.
- Point 1: NE colonial women probate cases and rights biblically run. Culture: Witch trials divert from main truth of power of women, used law to back fears. Example Ann Hibbens.
- Point 2: 14th amendment Bakery vs NY and Muller vs. Oregon. Win and loss for women. Made 14th a labor law. Weakened and gave rights to women.
Point 3: Society improvement dual legacy. Hull house created in Chicago by Progressive woman Ellen Gates Starr and Jane Addams college educated and put to use knowledge. Created better environments, mothers, teachers, nurses, open community, playgrounds. Social work born. Dual legacy, improved some things and distorted others. Woman club movement. Improved some conditions in dumbbell torrents. Crowding/ gave nice furniture/maybe needed food more. Americanized.
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