Dendrology Lecture Exam 1

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Dendrology Lecture Exam 1
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2012-10-15 21:44:50
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Dendrology Tree ID Rutgers
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Dendrology Lecture Exam 1 at Rutgers University
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  1. What is a tree?
    a woody plant that at maturity is 13 ft. or more in height, with a single trunk at least 3 inches in diameter at breast height (4.5 ft. ), un-branched for at least several feet above the ground, and having a more or less definite crown.
  2. Define Dendrology.
    The Study of trees
  3. By definition, how does a shrub differ from a tree?
    A shrub is a smaller and usually exhibit several erect, spreading, or prostrate stems with a general bushy appearance
  4. How many trees are north of Mexico? How many are considered important as forest trees?
    • 270
    • 200
  5. What is a forest cover type? Give examples.
    • forest stands or cover types consisting of a plant community made up of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
    • Global
    • United States 
    • Eastern US
  6. What is classification?
    • Ordering of items into groups having common characteristics, and into a hierarchy of successively more inclusive groups
    • Involves two processes: grouping and ranking
  7. Plant classification is a system of hierachical categories.  List this system starting with the largest, most inclusive category down to the smallest, most specific category.
    Division (or Phylum)

    Class

    Subclass

    Order

    Family

    Genus

    Species
  8. What is a phylogeny?
    A taxon at any level should represent one evolutionary line evolved from a common ancestor
  9. In scientific nomenclature, the complete description or name of a tree or plant species consists of three parts.  Name them.
    • 1. a generic name
    • 2. a specific epithet
    • 3. the full or abbreviated name of the person, or persons, who originally published the name and description, or made a later change
  10. Why would nomenclature change? Two reasons.  
    • Two valid reasons for change:
    •  1. nomenclatural (to bring the name into
    • compliance with the rules of nomenclature)
    •  2. taxonomic (evidence reflects the need for a
    • change in classification)
  11. Name three tree characters that can be used to identify a tree.
    • Tree ID takes into account the whole tree in its natural setting; geographic area, habitat, form, bark, twig,
    • leaves, taste or aroma, flowers and fruits or cones
  12. Natural variation can make tree ID challenging.  Name the two types of variation discussed in lecture and define them.
    • Intrinsic – originating within the
    • individual or species;
    • extrinsic – originating from outside; or
    • coming from another species.
  13. Species are not always homogeneous.  Infact, two trees of the same species can be different.  True or false?
    True
  14. Give examples of intrinsic variation.  
    • phenotypic plasticity: environmentally induced variation
    • developmental plasticity: changes that are under stronger
    • genetic control (change from a juvenile leaf form to a mature form)
    • abnormal(mutational): ultimate source of all genetic
    • variation, most are minor
    • chromosomal: changes in chromosome number in
    • trees may or may not be correlated with morphological differences
    • ecotypic: an ecotype or ecological race is a  distinct morphological or physiological form or population resulting form selection by a distinct ecological condition; it has adapted genetically to factors of its local habitat
    • clinal: a character gradient correlated
    • with a geographical or ecological gradient
    • reproductive
    • speciational: basically, ecotypes or
    • populations become genetically isolated and continue to diverge genetically;
    • primary mode of species formation
  15. Types of Intristic Variation Reproduction
    • “outcrossing” – xenogamy: crossing between individual plants
    • “inbreeding” – autogamy: selfing within a single, bisexual flower; and geitonogamy: crossing between flowers of one plant. Leads to less variation within a population, more differences among populations of a species
    • “Apomixis”: a specialized mechanism that is a substitution of an asexual process for the normal sexual reproduction.
    •      -vegetative apomixes – root sprouts, quaking aspen; and
    •      -agamospermy - the asexual formation of a seed in certain trees like hawthorn or serviceberry.
  16. What are the types of Extrinsic Variation?
    • Hybrid
    • Introgressive: occurs when the hybrid backcrosses with one or both of the parental species; transfers genes and character states from one species into another
  17. What is habitat?
    • A particular combination of environmental factors or conditions that allow a species to grow, develop, successfully compete and reproduce
    • Derived from soils, climate, physiography and biota present at the site
  18. What do soils do?
    • Provide moisture, required growth elements
    • Support
    • Physical characteristics
    • Chemistry
  19. What is physiography?
    Elevation, slop, aspect, land shape and land-water interface
  20. In terms of physiography, define 'aspect' and briefly state why it can be important in dendrology.
  21. Define 'tolerance' as used in dendrology, and briefly state why it is an important concept for dendrolgy.
    • Tolerance is reaction to light, reaction to competition, ability to complete life history under cover of a forest
    • A tolerant tree survives and grows under forest competition
  22. Cheif characteristics of trees usually influence the selection of their common names.  Name two examples of characteristics that influence common names.
  23. What is reproductive morphology?
    • Any structure involved with reproduction of the species
    • Primary basis for classification of seed plants because most stable characters
    • Often unavailable when observing trees – borne in crown, usually lasting for a short period of time
  24. Female reproductive features
    Ovule (contains egg)
  25. Male reproductive features
    Pollen grain (carries sperm)
  26. Physical morphology is considered the primary basis for classification of seed plants.  True or False?
    True
  27. What are the tree parts of the leaf?
    Stipule, blade (lamina), petiole
  28. Complete flower
    all four parts (sepals, petals, stamens, pistils)
  29. Flowering
    The process of floral maturation reaching the point where pollination is possible. 
  30. Incomplete flowers
    One or more missing or modified parts
  31. Imperfect Flowers
    have only one sex, can be monoecious or dioecious
  32. Dioecious, examples
    having imperfect flowers or cones on separate trees; “two houses”; holly, ginko, boxelder
  33. Monoecious, examples
    having both male and female flowers or cones on the same tree; “one house”; most conifers, oaks, hickories
  34. Perfect flowers, examples
    • contain both male and female structures; may be called synoecious or homoecious;
    • examples: dogwood, cherry
  35. Seed:
    Ripened ovule (usually with embryo)
  36. Fruit
    Ripened ovary
  37. Simple fruit
    From a single ovary in a flower
  38. Compound fruit:
    Formed from serveral seperate ovaries that stay together when they mature
  39. Dehiscent fruit
    the natural bursting open at maturity of a fruit or other reproductive body to release seeds or spores
  40. Indehiscent fruit
    not opening spontaneously at maturity to release seeds
  41. Corymb:
    Flat-topped raceme
  42. Head
    Flat- topped spike
  43. Umbel
    Raceme with elongated pedicels
  44. Panicle
    Compound inflorescence
  45. Spike
    Flowers sessile
  46. Is pollen type a characteristic of a family, genus or species?
    Yes to all.
  47. Pollination in gymnosperms
    transfer of pollen from the pollen sac to the ovule (cones)
  48. Pollination in angiosperms
    transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
  49. What are the three mechanisms of pollination?
    • Wind (anemophily)
    • Insect (entomophily)
    • Bird (ornithophily)
  50. What is a flower?
    a modified, determinate short shoot with a central stem axis (receptacle), highly modified sterile leaves (peranth) and reproductive leaves
  51. Dispersal mechanisms of seeds
    • Anemochory- wind
    • Zoochory- animals
    • Autochory/ballochory- projected out
    • Barochory: weight/gravity
    • Hydrochory: water
  52. 1. Endo-zoochory

    2. Exo-zoochory
    3. Syn-zoochory
    • 1.  Eaten
    • 2. Carried on
    • 3. Beneficial to both - squirels
  53. Describe one way to distinguish a compound leaf from a simple leaf.
  54. What are the three types of leaf arrangements (phyllotaxy)
    Alternate, opposite, whorled
  55. What are the 4 types of venation?
    Pinnate, palmate, parallel, dichotomous
  56. What are the general features of the leaves?
    Apex, base, margin
  57. What are the three types of leaf margins?
    Entire, toothed or lobed
  58. Epigeal: 
    • Cotyledons rise above ground by elongation of the hypocotyl
    • seed germination
  59. Hypogeal:
    • Cotyledons are storage structures below ground; plumule rises above ground
    • seed germination
  60. What are the three general parts of the lamina that exhibit distinct, discernable characteristics for IDing trees?
  61. Define vegetative morphology and breifly state why it's important for dendrology.
    Vegetative morphology characteristics include physical charachteristics we can see such as leaves, twigs, etc... It is important because we can see them year round unlike hte reproductive features whcih can only be seen at certain times of the year.
  62. Define tree habit, excurrent, and decurrent.  Give one example of each.
    • Habit: Tree shapes can be characteristic, Open grown vs Forest grown, Value-(economic vs. aesthetic), Crown
    • Excurrent: with a central dominant trunk, symmetrical, spirelike crown. Many gymnosperms, yellow-wood, some poplars
    • Deliquescent/decurrent: repeatedly forked stems; most trees (palm, yucca) 
  63. What is range and why is it important in dendrology? What is a range map and why is it useful in dendrology?
    • Range is the boundaries where certain tree species are found.  It is importnat to dendrology because it allows us to more accurately determine tree species.  
    • A range map shoews us where a tree species is likely to grow and survive.  It is important because it includes gaps and chan how us where the species is most likely to exist and survive. 
  64. The surface of a leaf can exhibit characters useful for ID.  Name three:
    Veination, texture, thickness
  65. Spines
    Modified leaves or stipules
  66. Prickles
    Modiefied epidermal tissue on leaf or twig
  67. Thorns
     modified stem tissue
  68. Why are twigs important for ID
    Because of buds, leaf scars, stipule scars, vascular bundle scars, pith, color, taste, odor, presence or absense of cork, spur shoots, spines/thorns/prickles and pubescence.
  69. What is community? What is formation?
    Formation is a broader scale.  One or more plant communities exhibiting a definite structure or life form and occupying similar habitats.
  70. Name two types of roots.
    Taproot (woody plants)

    Fibrous root
  71. What are leaves?
    Primary synthetic organ
  72. What is an obligate wetland species?  What is a facultative species/ upland species?
  73. Tree bark can vary not only within a species but by the age of tree, tree vigor, location and even on different parts of an individual tree.  As a result bark is not considered a particularly useful or primary character for ID.  True or False. 
    False. 
  74. Name two types of buds commonoly found on the twigs of trees. 
    Axillary and terminal
  75. Deciduous? example. 
    • Drops leaves in fall
    • Red maple
  76. Evergreen? example. 
    • Keeps leaves generally all year, sheffing them once every other year or longer
    • Pine
  77. Marcescent? Example. 
    Drops leaves in spring ( keeps them through winter) - Drop in spring because they are pushed off by new buds.
  78. What is New Jersey's state tree?
    Northern Red Oak
  79. What 4 principals did Darwin establish?
    • Evolution exists
    • Evolutionary change is gradual
    • Natural selection is the primary mechanism for evolution
    • Millions of species arose from a common ancestor through speialization
  80. Variation can occur where?
    • Between (species variation)
    • Within (species variation)
    • Genetic variation
    • Environmental influence
  81. What bird is Darwin famous for studying?
    Finches
  82. Where did Darwin Study these birds?
    Galapagos Islands
  83. Ernst Haeckels Tree of life contained what three branches
    • Animals
    • Plants
    • Protista
  84. Evolutionary trees are made with what four modern methods?
    • DNA
    • Morphology
    • Anatomy
    • Genomic data
  85. Apomorphy (synapomorphy)
    Shared dervived character
  86. Who said, "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny?"
    Ernst Haeckel
  87. What is the definition of evolution?
    Evolution is change over time
  88. Homoplasy
    Similar character states resulting from parallel or convergent evolution or reversal
  89. Polyphyletic
    Incudes decendants from two or more ancestors
  90. What information does a phyogenetic tree represent?
  91. What is a monophyletic group?
    A common ancestor and all of it's decendents.
  92. Are the dicots a monophyletic group?
    No
  93. What is convergance?
    When two species evolve similar traits
  94. Give an example of convergance.  
    The cacti in the American deserts and the cacti in African deserts. 
  95. The first "trees" were what?  What was there major evolutionary feature?
    • Lycopods and giant horsetails
    • Xylem and phloem
  96. The second major group of trees is what?  what was there major evolutionary feautres?
    • Woody gymnosperms (conifers, cycads and ginkgos)
    • Real wood and seed
  97. How do angiosperms differ from gymnosperms in terms of evolution?
    Angiosperms evolved to have seeds hidden in carpels (fruits) while gymnosperm seeds remained naked and in cones
  98. Are dicots paraphyletic or monophyletic? What are monocots?
    • Dicots are paraphyletic
    • Monocots are monophyletic
  99. Today's trees all originated from the same single ancestor.  True or False.
    False
  100. Humans are more closely related to fish than sharks.  True or false. 
    True
  101. Name three plant families with trees. 
    Sapindaceae, Fagaceae, Roseaceae
  102. Life has tree domains, there are no longer five kingdoms.  True or false.
    True
  103. Name a family that contains many toxic and allergenic plants. 
    Anacardiaceae
  104. Name a poisonous/allergenic plant. 
    Toxicodendron radicans (posion ivy)
  105. Are trees monophyletic? Explain. 
    No 
  106. What is the most exconomically imporant group of gymnosperms?
    Conifers
  107. Phylogeny can be defined as evolutionary relatedness.  True or false.
    True
  108. In an evolutionary tree, a clase is a branch or group of branches. True or false.
    True
  109. Diaspore
    Dispersed portion of seed/fruit
  110. Dicots
    2(4) cotyledons, leaf venation not parallel (pinnate, palmate), flower parts in 4,5s, vascular bundles form a ring around central pith. 
  111. Monocots
    1 cotyledon, mostly parallel, flower parts in threes, vascular bundles scattered throughout stem
  112. Trees occur in ____ of the dicot subclasses and in ______ of the monocot subclasses
    All , 3 
  113. Which family has leaves: alternate, simple, usually entire margined, stipulate - which enclose the (usually) large buds
    Magnoliaceae
  114. Which family has flowers that are large, entomophilous,
    actinomorphic, usually perfect, solitary, terminal or axillary; perianth of showy sepals (in 3s), stamens many, laminar, carpels many distinct
    Magnoliaceae
  115. Which family has fruit that are cone-like aggregates of follicle or samaras
    Magnoliaceae
  116. What are the two classes in Mangoliaceae
    • Magnolia
    • Liriodendron
  117. Which family and class is this?
    Unlobed, entire, apex not truncate, deciduous or persistent- Stamens introrse, receptacle elongate- Aggregate of fleshy follicles, seeds with bright scarlet aril
    Magnoliaceae Manolia
  118. Which family and class is this? 
    Nearly orbicular, 4-6 lobed,entire, apex truncate, deciduous, yellow in fall- Stamens extrorse- Aggregate of dry samaras
    Magnoliaceae Liriodendron
  119. Annonaceae is the ______ family
    Custard-Apple 
  120. Which family is this? 
    Leaves:
    alternate, simple, estipulate, entire, aromatic, distichous (in one plane)
    Flowers: solitary, before leaves, entomophilous,
    perfect, regular, perianth tepaloid in 3s, stamens many, 3 carpels
    Fruit: berry or aggregate of berries; seeds large; often the appearance of a fleshy cone
    Annonaceae
  121. What is the family class species and common name for Entire, elliptical, apex and base acuminate, pale below
    Sepals maroon-brown, nodding, pollinated by carrion flies (bad smell)
    Fruit: fleshy berry, yellow-brown; 3-6”
    long; smooth-skinned; large, shiny brown oblong seeds
    Asimina triloba (pawpaw) 
  122. What family is this? 
    Leaves: alternate, simple, often glandular-punctate, estipulate, often aromatic, persistent or deciduous

    Flowers: small, perianth tepaloid in 3s; stamens in 3s, anthers opening via valves, carpel one with usually one ovule
    Fruit: Drupe (or 1-seeded berry)
    Lauraceae
  123. What Family and Class is this? 
    Coriaceous, pungent-spicy, entire
    Small yellow, before leaves
    Acrid, yellow-purple drupe up to 1”
    sp. in western US in family; large tree; valued hardwood
    Lauraceae Umbellularia
  124. What family and class is this? 
    Persistent, coriaceous, entire, smell of “bay
    leaf” (not true bay) Small, yellowish
    Blue-black drupes
    Cabinets, boats, avocados
    Lauraceae Persea
  125. What family, class and species is this? Common name?
    Variable, 0-3 (-5) lobed Imperfect, dioecious,
    fragrant
    Blue-black drupe on long golf-tee-like, reddish pedicel
    3 sp.
    Furniture wood
    Lauraceae Sassafras albidum
  126. What family, class, species is this?  Common name?
    Entire, simple; smell of benzene when crushed
    Small, yellowish, dioecious, benzene
    red (yellow) drupes
    • Lauraceae Lindera benzoin
    • Spicebush
  127. What family is this?
    Leaves: alternate, bases dilated or stipulate
    Flowers: sepals and petals imbricated in bud, usually in 3s; stamens opposite petals, anthers opening by valves or lids at apex, carpel one
    Fruit: Berry or capsule
    Berberidaceae
  128. What family and class is this? 
    Prickly shrubs, wood yellow
    Leaves: Normal ones on spur shoots, can be up to 3 (-9)-lobed, grade into spines
    Flowers: sepals 6, petals 6 (yellow), stamens 6, stigma circular depressed
    Fruit: 1-few-seeded berry
    Baraberaceae Berberis
  129. Dentate
    A leaf margin with teeth that point outwards
  130. Distichous
    Leaves all in one plane
  131. Imbricate
    With regard to bud scales, overlapping
  132. Pinnate
    Feather-like, witha central axis and lateral branches
  133. Serrate
    A leaf margin with sharp teeth pointing foward
  134. What family is this?
    Leaves: opposite, on short spur shoots (with flowers) palmately-veined, crenate-serrate (“leaves like Cercis”–redbud)
    Flowers: dioecious, on short spur shoots before leaves, no perianth, anthers red, styles purple
    Fruit: many-seeded pod-like capsule; seeds small winged
    Cercidiphyllaceae
  135. What phyllum, class and subclasses is the "catkin bearing" group?
    Magnoliaphyta Manoliopsida Hamamelidea
  136. Which families are in the phyllum magnoliaphyta, class magnoliopsida, subclass hamaelidae, order hamamelidales?
    • Plantanaceae (sycamores and planes)
    • Hamamelidaceae (witch hazel and sweetgum)
  137. Which family is this? 
    Bark: peeling, variable colored
    Leaves: petioles enlarged at base, enclosing lateral bud, stipules large leaf-like, encircling twig; blade palmately veined, 3-7 lobed,
    Flowers: imperfect, monoecious, anemophilous, in separate globose heads.
    Fruit: multiple of achenes
    Platanaceae
  138. Which tree is this? Name family, genus, species and common name.  
    leaves: 4-8” dia., broadly ovate to orbicular; 3-5-lobed, broad, shallow sinuses; sinuately toothed; acuminate; cordate to truncate base; stout petioles, hollow at base; yellow to brown in fall
    fruit: ¾ - 1 ¼ “ dia., borne singly on 3-6”slender
    penduncles; persistent into winter
    bark: brownish on young branches; becoming mottled and showing brown, green, white through exfoliation; lower trunks of older trees brown and scaly
    Lumber, veneer, wood pulp.
    Platanaceae Platanus occidentalis-sycamore
  139. Which tree is this? Name family, genus, species and common name. 
    commonly planted ornamental
    hybrid between P. occidentalis and
    P. orientalis (Oriental plane)
      -  appearance similar to P. occidentalis
    except bark more olive-green, leaves generally smaller, with  longer, narrower lobes and  fruit heads may occur in twos and threes rather than singly
    Platanaceae Platanus xcerifolia
  140. Which family is this?
    Leaves: Alternate, simple, stipulate, often with stellate hairs
    Flowers: perfect or imperfect (monoecious), anemophilous, entomophilous, calyx 4,5 parted or 0, petals 4,5 or 0, stamens 4,5 or more, carpels 2 fused (1 pistil) with 2 celled ovary, 1 or more ovules in each cell.
    Fruit: 2-celled capsule, single or multiple
    Hamamelidaceae
  141. Which family is this?  
    Leaves: Alternate, simple, stipulate, margins rarely entire, usually serrate or dentate
    Flowers: monoecious, anemophilous, entomophilous,
    aggregated in terminal racemes (male), or globular heads
    Fruit: non-fleshy, dehiscent, capsule; globular, hard, dry multiple capsules
    Altingiaceae
  142. Which family and genus is this?
    Habit: Tree
    Lvs: Palmately lobed and veined
    Flwrs: Imperfect, monoecious
    Fruit: Globose multiple (“gumball”) 
    Scaly buds
    Important commercial hardwood
    Altingaceae Liquidambar
  143. Which family and genus is this?
    Habit: Shrub or small tree
    Lvs: Unlobed, pinnately veined
    Flwrs: Perfect
    Fruit: Born singly
    Naked buds
    "water diviners”, astringent made from bark
    Hamamelis
  144. Which families are in phyllum Magnoliaphyta, class Magnoliopsida, subclass Hamamelidae, Order Urticales?
    • Ulamaceae (elms)
    • Moraceaee (mulberry, fig)
  145. Which family is this? 
    Lvs: Alternate, simple, stipulate, serrate, inequilateral
    (oblique) at base
    Flwrs: Perfect or imperfect (monoecious), anemophilous, calyx 4-9 lobed or parted, corolla none, stamens 4-6; ovary superior, styles 2, ovule 1
    Fruit: Samara, drupe, or nut
    Ulmaceae
  146. Which family, and genus is this?
    Lvs: Usually doubly serrate with strongly oblique leaf base, numerous parallel veins
    Flwrs: Perfect
    Fruit: Samara
    Commercial  hardwood
    Ulmaceae Ulmus
  147. Which family and genus is this? 
    Lvs: Entire or single serrate, slightly oblique leaf base, 3 nerved at base
    Flwrs: Perfect or imperfect
    Fruit: Drupe
    Wood used for lumber
    Ulmaceae Celtis
  148. What family and genus is this?
    Lvs.: altn., simple, ovate to oblong-ovate; 1.25-2.5”long,
    .75-2.0” wide; long-pointed, singly serrate w/sharply long-teeth; 8-14 pairs of veins; strongly oblique base; dark green and somewhat rough above, glabrous below
    Flwrs: Imperfect
    Fruit: Drupe
    Bark: smooth, reddish-brown, heavily lenticelled when
    young; later exfoliating and mottled gray, green, orange or brown
    Common ornimental tree
    Ulmaceae Zelkova
  149. Which family is this?
    Lvs: alternate, simple, stipulate, often lobed; sap milky to clear
    Flwrs: imperfect, plants monoecious or dioecious, sepals 4, petals 0, stamens 4, carpels 2-fused
    Fruit: Multiple (syncarp) of drupes or achenes
    Orange inner bark
    Moraceae
  150. Which family and genus is this? 
    Stems unarmed
    Lvs: crenate-serrate, unlobed or 2-/3-lobed, palmately
    veined, not densely hairy; milky juice in young leaf petiole
    Style: deeply divided
    Carpellate (pistillate) catkins; fruit cylindric, resembles blackberry
    Silkworm industry
    Moraceae Morus
  151. Which family and genus is this?
    Stems unarmed
    Lvs: toothed and/or lobed, palmately veined, often densely hairy
    Style: undivided
    Carpellate (pistillate), catkins and fruit globose
    Moraceae Broussonetia
  152. What family and genus is this? 
    Stems armed
    Leaves: entire
    Dioecious
    Fruit: large globose, multiple of drupes
    Monotypic genus
    Moraceae Maclura
  153. What family and genus is this? 
    Stems unarmed
    Leaves: entire or lobed (rarely toothed)
    Monoecious (rarely dioecious)
    Fruit: smaller, pear- shaped multiple enclosed in perianth
    (fig)
    Moraceae Ficus
  154. What family is this? Hint: Corkwood family
    Lvs: alternate, entire, hairy on veins above, strongly pubescent below
    Flwrs: Imperfect (dioecious), catkins
    Fruit: dryish drupe
    Bark: reddish brown with lighter lenticels
    Lightest wood in U.S.
    Leitneriaceae
  155. What family is this? Hint: Walnut and Hickory family
    Lvs: alternate, pinnatelycompound, estipulate, often aromatic
    Flwrs: imperfect, usually monoecious,
    calyx 3-6 lobed, corolla absent, subtended by bract (involucre); male aments drooping; pistillate in few flowered spikes or solitary.
    Fruit: hard nut encased in a woody to slightly soft dehiscent or indehiscent “husk”.
    Juglandaceae
  156. What family and genus is this?
    Flwrs: Staminate aments unbranched
    Fruit: Nut with husk indehiscent and without sutures
    Twig: Pith chambered (after first year)
    Juglandaceae Juglans
  157. What family and genus is this? 
    Flwrs: Staminate aments 3-branched
    Fruit: Nut with husk usually dehiscent along sutures
    Twig: Solid and homogenous
    Heavy, strong, shock-resistant wood
    Important for wildlife
    Pecan is most important nut tree in U.S.
    Juglandaceae Carya
  158. Which family is this? Hint Wax-Myrtle Family
    Generally in swamps or on dry sandy soils; temperate and warmer regions
    “Nitrogen-fixers”- take nitrogen from air and add to soil
    Lvs: simple, alternate, yellow- orange or black resin dots, usually aromatic, entire or toothed margins.
    Flowers: imperfect, (plants dioecious or monoecious) in
    short, inconspicuous aments appearing in spring
    Fruit: variable, commonly a drupe
    Myricaceae
  159. Which family is this? Hint Beech and oak family
    Leaves: persistent or deciduous, often marcescent,
    alternate, simple, stipulate, short-petioled
    Flowers: ane- or (partially) entomophilous, uni- or
    bisexual aments or heads, imperfect, monoecious, 4-8-lobed calyx, 4-8 stamens, ♀flower: calyx adnate to ovary; ovary 3 (6)-celled, 1 style/cell, each with 1 or 2 ovules (only one
    matures)
    Fruit: nut(s) enclosed wholly or partially by a cupule (bur, cup or cap)
    Fagaceae
  160. Which family and genus is this?
    Deciduous persistent, thin to coriaceous
    ♂ aments pendant; ♀ stiff
    Acorn, rounded, solitary, cup with imbricate scales, maturing first or second year
    Fagaceae Quercus
  161. What family and genus is this?
    Persistent, coriaceous ♂, ♀, bi, in rigid-flexible spikes (aments)
    Acorn, rounded, solitary, cup with long slender strongly reflexed scales, maturing second year
    Lithocarpus (tan oak)
  162. Which family and genus is this?  
    Deciduous, thin to slightly coriaceous
    In erect uni-, bisexual spikes rigid or flexible
    Nut angular, 1-3 within a bur with stiff, sharp, branched spines, with simple hairs; maturing first season
    Fagaceae Castanea
  163. Which family and genus is this? 
    Deciduous, thin to slightly coriaceous
    ♂ in heads; ♀ in short (2-4 flowered) spikes
    Nut
    3-angled, 2 within bur with weak unbranched
    spines; maturing first year
    Fagaeceae Fagus
  164. Arcuate
    Pinnate venation in which the entire secondary veins narrowly arch upward towar the apex
  165. Punctate:
    Dotted with depressions or colored dots, generally glands
  166. Reniform
    Kidney- shaped; wider than long with a broad heart bease
  167. Serrualate
    Minutely serrate
  168. Unifoliate
    A leaf having only a single leaflet, usually desribed as simple.
  169. What family is this? Leaves:
    deciduous, alternate, simple, stipulate
    Flowers: imperfect, monoecious, anemophilous, ♂
    aments preformed (except occasionally Carpinus),
    pendant; ♀ aments stouter, spikelike
    or headlike; each flower subtended by bracts; calyx present or absent; corolla absent
    Fruit: nut or nutlet often subtended or enclosed by  bracts
    Betulaceae
  170. What family and genus is this? Hint: nirtogen fixers
    Leaves: ovate, oval, obovate; irregularly serrate or dentate, 3-ranked
    Flowers: staminate aments preformed in racemose
    clusters of 3-5, pistillate aments often preformed in clusters of 2-3; early spring flowering
    Fruit: small, compressed, laterally-winged samara borne in persistent semi-woody ament; chestnut brown
    Betulaceae Alnus
  171. What family and genus is this? 
    Leaves: mostly ovate, oval or triangular; serrate or doubly-serrate, dentate or lobed
    Flowers: staminate aments preformed in clusters of 2 or 3; pistillate aments solitary, individual flowers naked, in clusters of three
    Fruit: very small, laterally-winged samara borne in erect or pendent ament, with 3-lobed leathery bracts deciduous with fruit
    Betulaceae Betula
  172. What family and genus is this? 
    Leaves: alternate, doubly-serrate, distichous
    Flowers: monoecious, appearing in spring with leaves
    Fruit: ribbed, 1/3-inch nutlet
    subtended by a 3-lobed, leafy bract
    Usually poorly formed understory tree, twisted, fluted trunk, dark bluish-gray smooth bark
    Betulaceae Carpinus
  173. What family and genus is this?
    Leaves: distichous, oval to broadly elliptical, doubly serrate, more or less pubescent on both surfaces
    Flowers: unisexual aments maturing in spring
    Fruit: fairly large nut, enclosed by leafy bracts
    Betulaceae Corylus
  174. What family and genus is this? 
    Leaves: ovate to oblong, doubly serrate, thin, tough, rough to touch,pubescent below
    Flowers: 1-2-inch aments; male appearing in fall, persisting through winter; female in spring, monoecious
    Fruit: small nutlets each enclosed in tan, bladder-like sac, several forming a loosely imbricate, pendent, racemose cluster
    Betulaceae Ostrya
  175. What family is this? 
    Habit: Small trees or shrubs, nitrogen-fixing
    Leaves: minute, scale-like, whorled, connate
    Flowers: anemophilous, imperfect, monoecious or dioecious, staminate in aments, pistillate in heads
    Fruit: samaras in cone-like multiples
    Casuarinaceae - the beefwood family
  176. What family is this? 
    Leaves: reduced to spines or absent, photosynthesis largely by the succulent stem (cladophyll);spines and barbed bristles (glochids)
    arise from swollen areas (areoles).
    Flowers: showy, insect, bird/ bat pollinated, solitary, perianth tepaloid
    Fruit: many-seeded berry, edible
    Cactaceae
  177. What family is this? 
    Leaves: deciduous or persistent, non-aromatic, simple alternate, entire or serrulate, estipulate
    Flowers: solitary, large, perfect, entomophilous, 5 sepals, 5 petals, many stamens, pistil single
    Fruit: capsule or berry (only in Eurya)
    Theaceae- the tea family
  178. What family is this? 
    Leaves: generally simple, alternate, often palmately
    lobed or compound & palmately veined, margin may be entire; when dentate, veins end at tip of each tooth; often distichous, stipulate, sometimes with oblique bases; may have some hairs
    Flowers: commonly in axillary inflorescences, uni- or bisexual, generally actinomorphic, ane- and entomophilous, often associated w/conspicuous bracts
    Fruit: a capsule, schizocarp, drupe, berry, or nut-like
    Malvaceae- the mallow family
  179. What family and genus is this?
    Leaves: large (native sp.) to small (non-native sp.) ovate to rotund; coarsely, sharply serrate with cordate
    and/or oblique leaf bases; glabrous upper surface, axillary tufts of hairs to densely tomentose below; yellow to orange fall color
    Flowers: ane- and entomophilous, petals white-pale yellow, some stamens (in native sp.) modified into petaloid staminodes; borne in few-flowered cymes on narrow, leaf-like bract; appear late spring when leaves nearly mature
    Fruit: small, indehiscent grayish tomentose globose nut
    clustered on long pedicel to a short-petioled, long, persistent, foliaceous bract 
    Twigs: green to red; zigzag; terminal buds lacking; lateral buds inequilateral, mucilaginous, usually 2 or 3 visible, green or reddish scales; stipular scars prominent
    Bark: green, grayish-green young trees; later gray to brown, breaking up into narrow ridges
    Malvaceae Tilia
  180. What family is this? 
    Habit: Halophytes, xerophytes, with slender upright, spreading or drooping branches resembling Juniperus
    (juniper)
    Leaves: Simple, alternate, small scale-like, appressed against stem, salt glands, persistent or deciduous; many branches fall with leaves
    Flowers: small, showy, perfect, entomophilous,
    white-pink, 4 or 5 –merous, in slender racemes, spikes, panicles; spring and summer
    Fruit: small capsule; seeds hairy, windblown
    Tamaricaceae- Tamarisk family
  181. What is the genus inside Tamaricaceae?
    Tamarix
  182. What family is this? 
    Leaves: simple, alternate, deciduous, stipulate; petioles often glandular
    Flowers: imperfect, dioecious, ane- or entomophilous,
    both sexes in separate aments appearing before leaves, each flower subtended by a bract, staminate flowers 1-many stamens; pistillate
    flowers with 2-4, 2-lobed stigmas
    Fruit: 1-celled, 2-4-valved capsule with comose seeds wind-dispersed late spring or early summer; must be kept moist or lose viability, rapid germination 24-48 hours under ideal conditions
    • Salicaceae- Willow family
    • Not a 'timber-contributing group'
  183. What family and genus is this?
    Leaves: Simple, alternate or rarely subopposite,
    distichous, narrowly lanceolate to elliptical; entire or finely to coarsely toothed, short-petioled or sessile
    Flowers: appear before leaves; aments ascending, individual flowers (both sexes) with a basal nectar gland and densely pubescent, entire-margined bract; ane- and
    entomophilous
    Fruit: 2-valved, 1-celled capsule; cottony, silky-haired seeds
    Twigs: slender to stout, glabrous to pubescent, range from red, orange, yellow, green, purple to brown; lenticillate;
    terminal buds absent; laterals appressed, w/single scale fused into a cap or w/free overlapping margins
    Salicaceae Salix
  184. What family and genus is this?
    Leaves: ovate to deltate; crenate-serrate, dentate, or lobed; usually with long, compressed petioles
    Flowers: drooping aments appearing before leaves;individual flowers (both sexes) solitary inserted on a disk and subtended by pubescent, fimbriate-margined bract; anemophilous
    Fruit: 2-4-valved capsule containing a number of tufted seeds, shed in large numbers
    Twigs: stout to slender; mostly olive-brown to lustrous reddish brown; glabrous or pubescent; terminal bud present, laterals nearly same size
    Salicaceae Populus- aspens, balsam poplars, cottonwoods
  185. What genus is this? Species? Common name?
    Upright shrub to 10 feet Erect 
    clusters of white flowers very conspicuous in late summer; spicy, sweet fragrance
    Capsules persistent into winter with flower’s former style still protruding from center
    Clethra alnifolia (sweet pepper bush)
  186. What family is this? 
    Habit: Shrubs, some trees, often able to grow on poor soils
    Leaves: deciduous or persistent, alternate (rarely opposite, whorled), simple, estipulate
    Flowers: perfect, mostly sympetalous,
    5-parted, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, entomophilous
    Fruit: capsule, berry, drupe
    • Ericaceae - heath family
    • Huckleberries, cranberries, blueberries, laurel, rhodos
  187. What family and genus is this? 
    Leaves: persistent, coriaceous, entire to finely toothed, dark green, pale below
    Flowers: white, urn-shaped, drooping terminal panicles in spring
    Fruit: an orange-red drupe
    Bark: dark reddish brown, dividing into thin scaly plates
    Eriacaeae Arbutus
  188. What family and genus is this?
    Leaves: lanceolate-elliptic, serrulate
    especially towards apex; petiole and midrib (on leaf underside) hairy; sour tasting; dark red to scarlet or yellow in fall
    Flowers: white, urn-shaped on elongated terminal panicles; valued for honey
    Fruit: gray capsules erect on panicle (infructescence)
    Bark: longitudinally furrowed, blocky on large trees
    Small to medium-sized tree, 50’, 12”dbh; moderately intolerant
    Eriaceae Oxydendrum - sourwood
  189. What family and genus is this? 
    Habit: shrubs or small trees
    Leaves: evergreen or deciduous, alternate (sometimes appearing in pseudowhorls), entire or toothed 
    Flowers: showy, entomophilous, perianth 5-lobed, calyx minute, corolla showy, anthers open by terminal pores
    Fruit: capsules, seeds scale-like
    Leaves: persistent, leathery, oblong;
    Flowers: large, showy, white to pink terminal clusters, late spring
    Fruit: elongated, sticky capsule with many extremely small seeds
    Common large shrub, small tree; thickets
    Eriaceae Rhododenron
  190. What Family and genus is this?
    Leaves: alternate, opposite, whorled, entire usually coriaceous
    Flowers: perianth 5-parted, calyx deeply lobed, corolla rotate, crateriform, shallowly-lobed, stamens 10, the short anthers at first fitting into sacs in corolla
    Fruit: ovoid-globose capsule indented at top
    Eriaceae Kalmia (laurel)
  191. What family and genus is this?
    Huckleberries
    Leaves
    with yellow-glandular, glistening dots
    Fruit
    with ca. 10 hard seeds
    Eriaceae Gaylussacia
  192. What family and genus is this?
    Blueberries, cranberries, deerberries
    Leaves
    with no yellow glands
    Fruit
    with many tiny seeds
    Eriaceae Vaccinium
  193. What family is this?
    Habit: trees, shrubs with milky sap
    Leaves:
    alternate, simple, usually estipulate, entire, coriaceous, often with cross-shaped hairs, evergreen or deciduous
    Flowers:
    small, perfect, in clusters, white, entomophilous, perianth
    4-12-merous, connate, stamens 3-many, 2-many carpellate
    Fruit:
    berry with 1-several large seeds
    Sapotaceae
  194. What family and genus is this? 
    Leaves: on spur (sometimes spiny) branches, tardily deciduous, elliptic-ovate, base cuneate, entire, dark green above, gray-rusty hairy below
    Flowers: bell-shaped, on long pedicles
    Fruit: elliptical, black berry with only one seed developed
    Sapotaceae Bumelia
  195. What family is this?
    Leaves: alternate, simple, entire, estipulate, venation finely reticulate (visible on underside)
    Flowers: perfect or imperfect (if imperfect usually dioecious), small actinomorphic, perianth 3-7
    parted, each connate, stamens 3-many, entomophilous
    Fruit:
    plump berry with large, flat seeds, edible, calyx attached
    Wood:
    hard and dark
    Ebenaceae
  196. What species is in Ebenaceae?
    Ebenaceae Diospyros virginiana- persimmon
  197. What family is this? 
    Habit:
    shrubs or small trees
    Leaves:
    alternate, simple, estipulate, usually stellate hairs
    Flowers:
    white, perfect, regular, perianth 4-8 distinct or connate, stamens 4-many, usually epipetalous, carpels 3-5 connate, entomophilous
    Fruit:
    capsule, dry-fleshy drupe (rarely samara) 
    Bark:
    usually resinous
    Styracaceae- storax family
  198. What family and genus is this? 
    Habit:
    shrub or small tree
    Perianth
    4-merous, calyx almost completely adherent to ovary
    Fruit:
    winged
    Styracaceae Halesia- silverbell
  199. What family and genus is this?
    Habit: shrubs
    Perianth
    5-merous, half of the calyx adherent to the ovary,
    Fruit: dry, not winged
    Styracaceae styrax

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