Psy 255- Chapter 6

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Nandeita.Naraine
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177636
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Psy 255- Chapter 6
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2012-10-14 20:07:42
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psych consumer behavior
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Chapter 6
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  1. Descriptions of how individual consumers differ according to specific trait or patterns of behavior are called _____.

    A.individual lifestyle variables
    B.personality variables
    C.lifestyle traits
    D.individual descriptor variables
    E.individual difference variables
    E. individual difference variables
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. _____ is the totality of thoughts, emotions, intentions, and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he or she adapts to his or her environment.

    A.Self-concept
    B.Extroversion
    C.Introversion
    D.Individuality
    E.Personality
    E. personality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. In which approach to studying personality are behaviors assessed at a number of points in time?

    A.multi-attribute approach
    B.time-series approach
    C.aggregation approach
    D.psychoanalytic approach
    E.linear approach
    C. aggregation approach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which psychologist advocated the psychoanalytic approach to personality?

    A.Maslow
    B.Skinner
    C.Jung
    D.Freud
    E.Pavlov
    D. Freud
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. According to the psychoanalytic approach to personality, which personality element focuses on pleasure-seeking and immediate gratification?

    A.ideal self
    B.superego
    C.actual self
    D.id
    E.ego
    D. id
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following motivates a person to focus on maximizing pleasure and minimizing pain?

    A.superego
    B.reality principle
    C.fantasy principle
    D.hedonic principle
    E.pleasure principle
    E. pleasure principle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. According to the psychoanalytic approach to personality, the superego _____.

    A.works against the id by motivating behavior that matches societal norms and expectations
    B.focuses on pleasure-seeking and immediate gratification
    C.seeks to satisfy the id within the constraints of society e.attempts to balance the desires of the id with the constraints of, and expectations found in, the ego
    D.focuses on resolving the conflicts between the id and the ego
    A. works against the id by motivating behavior that matches societal norms and expectations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. According to the psychoanalytic approach to personality, which element works largely in accordance with the reality principle?

    A.id
    B.superego
    C.ego
    D.trait
    E.self-concept
    C. ego
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which consumer research utilized tools such as depth interviews and focus groups to improve understanding of inner motives and needs?

    A.reality research
    B.motivational research
    C.psychological research
    D.hedonic research
    E.trait research
    B. motivational research
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which approach to personality focuses on specific consumer traits as motivators of various consumer behaviors?

    A.characteristic approach
    B.psychoanalytic approach
    C.tendency approach  
    D.trait approach
    E.motivational research
    D. trait approach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. A distinguishable characteristic that describes one’s tendency to act in relatively consistent manner is called a(n) _____.

    A.consciousness
    B.proneness
    C.trait
    D.environmental factor
    E.self-concept
    C. trait
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following is a “variable-centered” approach that focuses on particular variables, or traits, that exist across a number of consumers?

    A.unidimensional perspective
    B.VALS perspective
    C.nomothetic perspective
    D.multidimensional perspective
    E.idiographic perspective
    C. nomotheic perspective
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which approach focuses on the total person and the uniqueness of his or her psychological makeup rather than focusing on one trait across many individuals?

    A.nomothetic perspective
    B.holistic perspective
    C.idiographic perspective
    D.universal perspective
    E.individual perspective
    C. idiographic perspective
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. In which approach is the focus of the researcher on one particular trait, such as need for cognition, rather than on a combination of traits?

    A.single-trait approach
    B.multiple-trait approach
    C.uni-trait approach
    D.unidimensional approach
    E.multidimensional approach
    A. single-trait approach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which trait represents the tendency for consumers to focus on maximizing what is received from a transaction as compared to what is given?

    A.materialism
    B.value consciousness
    C.bargaining proneness
    D.conscientiousness
    E.valuation
    B. value consciousness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which trait refers to the extent to which material goods are important in a consumer’s life?

    A.vanity
    B.innovativeness
    C.materialism
    D.value consciousness
    E.possessiveness
    C. materialism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following is a dimension of materialism? 

    A.greed
    B.vain
    C.value consciousness
    D.generosity
    E.envy
    E. envy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The degree to which a consumer is open to new ideas and buying new products, services, or experiences early in their introduction is referred to as _____.

    A.materialism
    B.impulsiveness
    C.innovativeness
    D.frugality
    E.possessiveness
    C. innovativeness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which trait refers to the degree to which consumers enjoy engaging in effortful cognitive information processing?

    A.materialism
    B.competitiveness
    C.need for cognition
    D.innovativeness
    E.complaint proneness
    C. need for cognition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which trait may be defined as an enduring tendency to strive to be better than others?

    A.impulsiveness
    B.innovativeness
    C.materialistic
    D.competitiveness
    E.conspicuous
    D. competiveness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. A tendency of the wealthy to flaunt their material possessions as a way of displaying their social class is called _____.

    A.competitive consumption
    B.extroverted consumption
    C.conspicuous consumption  
    D.obnoxious consumption
    E.materialistic consumption
    E. materialistic consumption
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which trait reflects the tendency of a consumer to exhibit restraint when facing purchases and using resources?

    A.frugality
    B.materialism
    C.conscientiousness
    D.envy
    E.stinginess
    A. frugality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which trait reflects a tendency for consumers to take excessive pride in themselves, including their appearance and accomplishments?

    A.trait vanity
    B.frugality
    C.conscientiousness
    D.conspicuousness
    E.introversion
    A. trait vanity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. All of the following are dominant traits proposed in the five-factor model (FFM) approach EXCEPT _____

    A.agreeableness
    B.openness to experience
    C.frugality
    D.conscientiousness
    E.stability   
    C. frugality
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. All of the following are criticisms of the trait approach to studying personality EXCEPT _____.

    A.It is impossible to objectively assign a personality trait score to an individual consumer.
    B.Personality traits have not traditionally been shown to be strong predictors of consumer behavior relative to other explanatory variables.
    C.Personality traits are sometimes hard to measure, and researchers often use measures with questionable validity.
    D.Consumer traits generally do not predict specific brand selections
    E.Researchers often measure and use traits in ways not originally intended.  
    A. It is impossible to objectively assign a personality trait score to an individual consumer.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. A relatively new approach to researching consumers, which combines personality theory and motivation is the _____ approach.

    A.uniqueness
    B.idiographic
    C.nomological
    D.trait
    E.personology
    E. personology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. All of the following are typical brand personality dimensions EXCEPT _____.

    A.ruggedness
    B.competence
    C.sophistication
    D.excitement
    E.conscientiousness
    E. conscientiousness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. When Honda first introduced the Odyssey, it’s offering in the mini-van category, it was promoted as the “Honda of mini-vans.”  Honda was building off of its reputation for marketing reliable and dependable automobiles.  Which brand personality dimension does this illustrate?

    A.competence
    B.sincerity
    C.ruggedness
    D.excitement
    E.sophistication
    A. competence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. The finding that consumers who experience significant life events at approximately the same age are greatly influenced by the events is known as the _____ effect.

    A.generational
    B.significant event
    C.age
    D.cohort
    E.segmentation
    D. cohort
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. The relationship between consumer and brand has been described in terms of _____.

    A.commitment
    B.intimacy
    C.love and passion
    D.self-connection
    E.all of these choices   
    E. all of these choices
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. The ways consumers live and spend their time and money is known as consumer _____.

    A.lifestyles
    B.personality
    C.psychographics
    D.geodemographics
    E.demographics
    A. lifestyles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Consumer lifestyles are measured using _____.

    A.psychographics
    B.self-conceptualization
    C.demographics
    D.geodemographics
    E.life-o-graphics
    A. psychographics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. _____ are observable, statistical aspects of populations including such factors as age, gender, or income.

    A.Demographics
    B.Strata
    C.Psychographics
    D.Identifiers
    E.Parametrics
    A. demographics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. AIO statements are used to gain an understanding of consumers.  What does AIO stand for?

    A.activities, interactions, and opposition
    B.attitudes, introversion, and openness
    C.attitudes, interactions, and openness
    D.activities, interests, and opinions
    E.agreeableness, introspection, and opinions
    D. activities, interests, and opinions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. All of the following have been identified as segments in the European tourism industry EXCEPT _____.

    A.liberal
    B.idealistic
    C.home loving
    D.hedonistic
    E.conservative
    A. liberal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. All of the following are primary motivations examined in the VALS classification of consumer lifestyles EXCEPT _____.

    A.all of these choices are primary motivations used in the VALS classification system
    B.achievement motivation
    C.self-expression motivation
    D.ideals motivation
    E.financial motivation
    E. financial motivations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Which of the following is a group in the VALS2 classification?

    A.Financial Positives
    B.Hedonists
    C.Conservatives
    D.Upbeat Enjoyers
    E.Innovators
    E. innovators
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. In the VALS classification of consumers, Thinkers _____.

    A.use shopping as a way to demonstrate to others their ability to buy
    B.are home-loving and focus mostly on family
    C.are ideal motivated, mature, and value order
    D.are successful, sophisticated people who have high self-esteem and image is important to them
    E.are self-expressive and live their lives primarily around church and family
    C. are ideal motivated mature, and value order
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. _____ combine data on consumer expenditures and socioeconomic variables with geographic information in order to identify commonalities in consumption patterns of households in various regions.

    A.VALS techniques
    B.Multi-trait techniques
    C.Psychographic techniques
    D.Geographic techniques
    E.Geodemographic techniques
    E. Geodemographic techniques
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. It is often useful to look at demographic variables, such as age, income, and education, by ZIP codes.  Combining demographic data with geographic information such as zip codes is an example of using a _____ technique.

    A.graphical
    B.geodemographic
    C.resource allocation
    D.behavioral
    E.multi-trait
    B. geodemographic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. PRIZM combines _____ information in a manner that enables marketers to better understand and target their customers.

    A.resource and personality
    B.motivational and resource
    C.demographic and personality
    D.demographic and behavioral
    E.behavioral and personality
    D. demographic and behavioral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. PRIZM is a consumer classification system that uses _____ different segments.

    A.132
    B.8
    C.10
    D.25
    E.66
    E. 66
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. _____ refers to the totality of thoughts and feelings that an individual has about him- or herself.

    A.Lifestyle
    B.Self-esteem
    C.Self-concept
    D.Personality
    E.Semiotics
    C. self-concept
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The study of symbols and their meaning is referred to as _____.

    A.symbolism
    B.pluralism
    C.linguistics
    D.semiotics
    E.conceptualization
    D. semiotics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. Which self-concept refers to how a consumer currently perceives him- or herself?

    A.personal self
    B.social self
    C.realistic self
    D.actual self
    E.extended self
    D. actual self
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Which self-concept refers to how a consumer would like to perceive himself?

    A.social self
    B.actual self
    C.possible self
    D.extended self
    E.ideal self
    E. ideal self
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. The positivity of an individual’s self-concept is called _____.

    A.ideal self
    B.self-perception
    C.perfected self
    D.self-congruency
    E.self-esteem
    E. self-esteem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Which theory proposes that much of consumer behavior can be explained by the match between a consumer’s self-concept and the image of typical users of a product?

    A.self-congruency theory
    B.self-matching theory
    C.PRIZM
    D.self-enhancement theory
    E.self-attribute theory
    A. self-congruency theory
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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