Path Chap 6 Terms

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Path Chap 6 Terms
2012-10-14 19:53:33

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  1. Myocardium
    special muscle that makes up the heart
  2. Endocardium
    sac of connective tissue that encloses the entire heart
  3. Pericardium
    connective tissue that attaches the endocardium to the thorax
  4. Coronary arteries
    branch from the base of the aorta to suppley the entire myocardium
  5. Sinoatrial (SA) node
    depolarizes & sends first signal to atria causing them to contract
  6. Atrioventricular (AV) node
    depolarizes next and sends signal into ventricular walls viz AV bundle, bundle branches & Purkinje fibers
  7. Diastole
    atria & ventricles are both relaxed (70% of ventricular filling occurs during htis phase)
  8. Systole
    contractionphase (Atrial systole precedes vetricular systole)
  9. Stroke Volume
    amount of blood pumped into the aorta during a singular ventricular contraction
  10. Cardiac Output
    the volume of blood pumped per minute=stroke volume x heart rate (bpm)
  11. Blood pressure
    the pressure of blood against the atrial walls *too low=hypoxia of brain, too high=damge to capillaries
  12. Angina
    chest pain
  13. Tachypnea
    respiration rate >24 breaths/min.
  14. Hypernpea
    increased respiration rate, type of tachypnea-breaths are usually large and deep-->hyperventilation
  15. Bradypnea
    respiration rate <12 breaths/min.
  16. Hypopnea
    breathing is slow and shallow (as seen with rib fractures) call 911
  17. Dyspnea
    shortness of breath (subjective)
  18. Orthopnea
    type of dyspnea that begins/increases when patient is supine
  19. Hyperventilation
    increase in rate without increase in depth
  20. Fatigue
    reduction in the body's capability to perform work
  21. Palpitation
    sensation of "skipped beats" or "fluttering (caused by arrhythmia)
  22. Arrhythmia
    disturbance of the electrical activity that controls the heartbeat (causes cardiac contractions of excessive pace or strength; felt as palpitations)
  23. Syncope
    fainting, a complete loss of consciousness and postrual tone (resulting from a sudden reduction in the brain's blood supply)
  24. Claudication
    Impaired gait (occurs when blood flow to a lower limb is blocked)
  25. Tissue ischemia
    lack of blood (usually a chronic sign of CV disorders)
  26. Clubbing
    rounding (of fingertips & nails, caused by CV disorders)
  27. Edema
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces
  28. Hear rate
    measured in beats per minute, characterized by: rate, rhythm (regular vs. irregular), and character (strong vs. weak)
  29. Bradycardia
    slow hear rate (resting <60bpm, can occur in trained athletes)
  30. Tachycardia
    rapid heart rate (resting >100bpm)
  31. Respiration
    rate: breaths per minute should be regular, moderate in depth and require little effort
  32. Auscultation
    using a stethoscope to listen to internal body sounds (cardica, pulmonary, abdominal) p.110-113 in O'Connor
  33. Bruits
    abnormal vascular sounds includeing: clicks, pounding, or continuous
  34. Myocardial bulging
    coronary artery that is surrounded by myocardium for a portion of its course, *seen in up to 25% of hearts at time of autopsy