Immune sytem

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Naheer
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177650
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Immune sytem
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2012-10-21 19:46:38
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KNES 323
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chapter 24
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  1. immune system functions
    protect againt pathogen, foreign material, remove damged or dead cells, remove abnormal cells
  2. Pathogens
    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • worms
    • fungi
    • parasites
    • protozoa
  3. Pathologies
    • incorrect immune responses
    • autoimmune (type 1 diabetes)
    • overactive immune responses 
    • allergies
    • lack of immune response
    • immunodeficiency disease
  4. lymphoid tissues
    • produce, store, process lymphocytes
    • include:
    • bone marrow
    • lymph nodes= storage
    • spleen,thymus- matuartion cells
    • tonsils/ adenoids
    • appendix
    • peyers patches (GAIT)
  5. Lymphatic system
    • drain tissue
    • filtering
    • fat transport
  6. lymph nodes
    • remove impurities and pathogens from lymph 
    • lymphocyte sotrage and phagocytosis-chew down any debris
  7. non specific immunity(innate)
    • quick
    • external defenses
    • inflammation
    • interferon-early response to viral infection
    • natural killer cells
    • complement system
  8. specific-required
    • slower but stronger
    • T-cells
    • B-cells
  9. External defenses
    • Physical barriers
    • skin
    • mucous membranes
    • Chemical Barriers
    • stomach acid
    • lysozyme is secreted fluids
    • realease chemical signals such as histamine
    • dilation causes phagocytes to area
    • phagocytes (macrophages and neutrophils) consume bacteria and cell debris; tissue heals 
  10. what does histamine cause in the inflammation response
    • increase blood flow to site
    • increase permeability of capillaries
    • increase WBC/ protein to site
    • increase fluid (swelling)
  11. Inflammation
    tissue trauma-> histamine release -> pyremia-heat-> dilation of arterioles and capillaries-> increase capillary permeanility-> neutrphil in and out of blood vessel ( leukocytosis)-> inflammatory exudate-> monocyte and fibrin 
  12. inflammatory chemicals
    • interleukins
    • cause fever
    • change permeability of blood vessels 
    • Bradykinin- trigger pain receptors
    • complement proteins 
    • cascade produce membrane attack complex 
    • breakdown of foreign cell
  13. Cytokines
    • chemical that activate cell
    • trigger response
  14. phagocytes
    • ingest foreign cells and chemicals
    • macrophages
    • neutrophils
    • Natural killer cells
    • kill tumor and infected cells

    •  Cytokines mediate inflammatory response
  15. antigen-presenting cells 
    • marks cell for helper T- cells 
    • mediate increased response 
  16. Natural killer cells
    • kill infected cells
    • attack some tumor cells
    • secrete chemical signals
    • interferon(a,b)prevent viral replication
    • interferon (y)- activate macrophages and other immune cells 
  17. Interferon
    released by infected cells to help prevent infection of other healthy cells 
  18. four steps in an immune response
    • 1. identify foreign substance
    • 2. communicate with other immune cells
    • 3. coordinate response
    • 4. destroy invader
  19. Acquired (Specific) immunity
    • target antigens
    • cytokines regulate both innate and acquired immune responses 
    • T-cell and B-cell reaction
  20. types of immunity
    • active natural-immune response
    • active acquired- ex-vaccinations
    • passive natural- ex-breast milk 
    • passive acquired-give immune response
    • ex gamma globulins (immune deficiency)
  21. lymphocyte clones
    • very specific to their virus
    • response specific to create antibodies 
  22. steps in immune response
    • naive lymphocytes-not stimulated
    • antigen bind to specific lymphocyte clone 
    • clone expansion
    • cells muliply rapidly
    • become plasma,helper T and cytoxic cells
    • other cells becme memopry cells 
    • stronger faster response to 2nd exposure 
  23. specific immunity
    • B-cells 
    • attack free virus 
    • antibody reaction
    • Tcells 
    • attack infected cells 
    • both systems turn on at same time
  24. types of lymphocytes
    • B-lymphocytes 
    • plasma cells-> secrete antibodies 
    • T lymphocytes -turn on whole specific response, can become 3 type of cell 
    • -helper T cells-> secrete cytokines 
    • cytotoxic T cells -> attack infected cells, kill off
    • surpressor T cells- limit response 
    • NK cells
  25. B lymphocytes
    • kill free viruses 
    • ammunoglobins attached to B cell. Bind virus on ammunoblobin to activate B cell.  
    • clonal expansion form plasma cells 
    • plasma cell produce antibodies ( bind free virus)
    • memory cells 
    • faster, stronger secondary response 
    • opsonin-> antibody that sensititizes antigen to phagocytosis
  26. during secondary immune response, antibody concentration in plasma _______
    increases, dur to memory cells after first exposure
  27. binding of anitbodied to antigens inactivate antigens by:
  28. five classes of antibodies (aka immunoglobulins or gamma globulins)
    • IgG- most common, secondary response IgG (more specific)
    • IgA- in saliva, tears breast milk. not sure about function
    • IgE-involved in allergic response. gets inlfammation
    • IgM- primary response. More general
    • IgD-surface of B cells- role unclear
    • if have enough IgG put in you can help cure allergy
  29. function of antibodies 
    • 1. activate B-lymphocyte 
    • memory cells and plasma cell secrete antibodies
    • 2.act as opsonin- increase phagocytosis
    • 3.antigen clumping and inactivation of bacterial toxins 
    • 4.activate antibody dependent cellular activity 
    • 5. degranulation
    • 6.activate complement 
  30. T cells 
    • T lymphovytes-defend against intracellular pathogens 
    • T cell receptors- recognize foreign antigens with major histocmpatibilaty complex (MHC) proteins
    • MHC proteins - found on all body cells  and vary in people
  31. activation of T lymphocytes 
    • cell bind to T lymphocyte
    • signal transduction activates it
  32. MHC class 1 proteins
    • on all nucleated cells of body
    • Recognized by cytotoxic T cells 
  33. MHC class 2 proteins 
    • only on antigen presenting cells 
    • recognized by helper T cells 
  34. Functional roles of cytotoxic T cells 
    • kill infected cells
    • release perforin- create holes in infected cells 
    • stimulate aptosis (cell suicide)
  35. function of Helper T cells
    • secrete cytokines
    • fever
    • increase number of B cells and T cells 
    • Bind to B cells
  36. factors affecting resistance to infection
    • malnutrition
    • pre-existing disease 
    • tissue injury
    • stress
    • state of mind
    • genetic disorder
    • horomone changes
    • previous exposure
  37. Immune disorders
    • hypersensitivity
    • overreaction to immunity
    • automimmune
    • imune against itself
    • Isoimmune
    • immunity against other humans
    • Immunodeficient
    • immunity lacking
  38. inflammatory response to allergen
    pollen, dust-> overproduction IgE-> Affinity for basophils and mast cells -> Rupture mast cell, release histamine, seratonin and bradykinin-> local edema, swelling, congestion
  39. Allergic responses 
    • immediate hypersensitvity
    • occur w/in minutes
    • mediated by antbodies
    • Delayed hypersensitivity
    • occur after several days 
    • mediated by helper T cells and macrphages 
  40. Type I
    • excess IgE bound to mast cells and activated y allergens 
    • inflammation
    • ex: allergies 
  41. Type II
    • IgM or IgG cause destruction of foreign cells 
    • cell lysis
    • ex: blood incompatability
  42. Type III
    • immune complexex deposited in tissue and vessels 
    • inflammation and tissue destruction
    • Ex: immune complexes- glomerulonephritis
  43. Type IV
    • sesnitized T lymphocytes release cytokines 
    • inflammation and tissue damage 
    • Ex: delayed- poison ivy, organ rejection
  44. Delayed Hypersensitvity
    • symptoms:
    • increase eosinophils
    • redness, heat, swelling and itching 
    • runny nose, coughing sneezing wheezing and nasal congestion
  45. Contact Dermititis 
    • acute or chronic allergic skin reaction 
    • causes:
    • plants
    • jewelry 
    • drugs
  46. Asthma 
    • allergy induced vs exercise induced 
    • symptoms:
    • difficulty breathing
    • wheezing
    • anxiety
    • cough
  47. Immediate hypersensitivity 
    • ex: food allergies 
    • symtpoms:
    • cramping, diarrhea 
    • vomiting
    • hives, rashes
    • runny nose
  48. Allergy shots 
    • increase production IgG 
    • IgG bind the allergen before it binds to IgE 
    • decrease allergic response 
  49. Hypersensitivity
    • Anaphylaxis- severe allergic response 
    • causes:
    • antibiotics 
    • Anesthetics
    • Foods
    • latex 
    • Vaccine
    • bee stings 
  50. Anaphylaxis
    • abnormal distribution of blood
    • vasodilation, not providing enough blood to area 
    • release histamine-> blood vessel dilate and leak plasma-> blood pressure falls-> venous return to heart impaired-> cardiac output inadequate-> circulation drastically reduced
  51. symptoms and tramwnt of anaphylaxis
    • symptoms:
    • itching throat, tongue
    • swelling of face and throat
    • Treatment
    • epinephrine- vasodilator
    • corticosteroids- cortisol break down immune response
    • antihistamines
  52. Issoimmune disorders 
    • blood transfusion reaction
    • symptoms of transfusion:
    • chills/shivering
    • fever
    • hemolytic anemia
  53. A and B antigens are ____________ while Rh antigens are _________
    • naturally occuring
    • acquired 
  54. which blood type is universal donor and universal recipient?
    • Type O universal donor
    • AB universal recipient
  55. erythroblastosis
    • Mother antibodies attack and destroy antigen on babies RBC
    • only affect Rh-positive babies carried by Rh-negative mother 
    • treatment=tranfusion babies blood
    • gamma globulins- fake antibodies
  56. Organ transplants 
    • autograft-from oneself
    • isograft-from twin
    • xenograft-from animal
    • allograft-from another person
  57. Autoimmune disorders
    • immune systme doesnt react to self antigens
    • autoimmune usually restricted to specific tissue or organs
  58. rheumatic rever
    • strep infection
    • ocur one to four weeks later
    • antibodies attack bacteria and own tissue 
    • sypmtoms:
    • fever, malaise , joint pain
    • myocarditis 
  59. rheumatoid arthritits
    • abnormal anitbodyattack own cells and tissues
    • symptoms:joint pain and ulnar deviation
    • treatment:
    • corticosteroids/ anti-inflammatory needs 
    • surgical joint replacement 
  60. Type 1 diabetes mellitus 
    triggered by viral infections 
  61. Lupus Erythematosus 
    • cutaneous or systemic
    • symptoms:
    • butterfly rash
    • joint pain/fever
    • low blood counts
    • weight loss
    • dterioration of organs 
    • treatment= anti-inflammatory, analgesics
  62. causes of immune deficiency disorders
    • congenital/ genetic disorder
    • bone marrow suppresion-chemotherpy and radiation
    • imunosurpressants
    • immunodeficiency (AIDS)
  63. HIV
    • retrovirus 
    • decrease helper T cells-> fewer B cells-> decrease toxic response 

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