orchitis cryptorchidism cancer stds.txt

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orchitis cryptorchidism cancer stds.txt
2012-10-14 22:02:27

orchitis cryptorchidism cancer and stds
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  1. Orchitis
    swelling or inflammation of one or both testicles and may occur with prostatic or epididymal infection
  2. Causes of orchitis
    • bacterial or viral infection
    • STDs
    • traumatic injury
  3. Symptoms of orchitis
    • sudden in onset
    • unilateral or bilateral swelling
    • mild to sever scrotal pain
    • tenderness in one or both testicles
    • prostate enlargement and tenderness
    • penile discharge
    • nausea/vomiting
    • fever
  4. Prevention of orchitis
    • vaccination against mumps
    • abstinence
    • monogamy
    • condoms
    • protective cups against physical injury
  5. Diagnosis of orchitis
    • physical/digital rectal examination
    • blood/urine testing for bacterial culture
    • ultrasound
    • testicular scan (nuclear)
  6. Treatment of orchitis
    • NSAIDs
    • bed rest
    • cold pack to scrotum
    • antibiotics
  7. Cryptorchidism
    • undescended testicle - one or both testicles fail to descend before birth
    • ~3% full-term male newborns have one undescended testicle at birth
    • ~30% premature newborns have undescended testicle at birth
    • testicles usually descend during 8th month gestation
  8. Causes of abnormal testicular development
    • short spermatic artery
    • poor blood supply
  9. Complications of cryptorchidism
    • infertility
    • high risk of developing testicular cancer
  10. Treatment of cryptorhidism
    • hormonal therapy
    • surgery
  11. Testicular cancer
    ~90% of testicular cancer cases may have either a painless but slightly uncomfortable lump or testicular enlargement or swelling
  12. Risk factors of testicular cancer
    • cryptorchidism
    • family history
    • ethnicity
  13. Symptoms of testicular cancer
    • asymptomatic
    • discomfort or pain in the testicle or a feeling or heaviness in the scrotum
    • lump or swelling in either testivle
    • dull ache in the back or lower abdomen
    • gynecomastia
  14. Diagnosis of testicular cancer
    • physical examination
    • ultrasound
    • blood test for tumor markers
  15. Treatment of testicular cancer
    • surgery
    • radiation therapy
    • chemo
  16. Normal age-related biological changes
    • pubic hair thins and grays
    • loss of elasticity of external genitalia causing wrinkling and sagging of skin
    • testes decrease in size
    • testosterone levels decline and sperm count decreases
    • prostate gland secretions decrease
  17. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
    • enlargement of the prostate gland
    • affects >50% of men over age 60 and 90% of men over 70
    • ratio of testosterone/estrogen (from adrenal cortex) changes due to lower testosterone
  18. Erectile dysfunction (ED)
    • the inability to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse
    • dilation of penile arteries causing an engorgement of erectile tissue of the penis under control of ANS
    • 18 million men in the US age 20 and over are affected
    • risk increases dramatically as men age
  19. Primary ED
    never able to develop an erection
  20. Secondary ED
    sudden onset of impotency, although erections have been sustained in the past
  21. Causes of ED
    • psychological
    • physiological
  22. Diagnosis of ED
    • medical, sexual and psychosocial history
    • physical examination
    • lab tests
    • ultrasound
  23. Treatment of ED
    • medications
    • penile pumps or transplants
    • vascular surgery
  24. STDs
    • spread by sexual contact (unprotected oral, anal or vaginal sex)
    • caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa
    • symptoms: none or minor, infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, adverse pregnancy outcomes