diagnostic prostatitis and epididymitis.txt

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diagnostic prostatitis and epididymitis.txt
2012-10-14 22:04:58
diagnostic prostatitis epidiymitis

diagnostic tests, prostatitis and epididymitis
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  1. Diagnostic procedures of male reproductive system
    • visual examination of external genitalia
    • self-examinationof testes for presence of tumors
    • digital rectal examinationfor palpating prostate gland
    • cystoscopy for visualizing urethra and urinary bladder
    • urinalysis (for STDs)
    • blood testing (PSA, hormones, STDs)
  2. Prostatitis
    • inflammation or infection of the prostate gland
    • may account for up to 25% of all office visits among young and middle-aged men
    • ~5-10% or prostatitis caused by bacterial infection
  3. Symptoms of prostatitis
    • urination; dysuria (pain or burning), difficult (dribbling or hesitancy), nocturia (frequently at night), urgency
    • pain; located in perineum (between penis and rectum)
  4. Classified into four categories
    • category 1 - acute bacterial prostatitis
    • category 2 - chronic bacterial prostatitis
    • category 3 - chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain
    • category 4 - asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis
  5. Acute bacterial prostatitis (category 1)
    • sudden onset of infection
    • general feeling of malaise
    • high fever/chill
    • nausea/vomiting
  6. Treatment of acute bacterial prostatitis (category 1)
    • intravenous antibiotics if hospitalized
    • oral antibiotics for two to four weeks
    • pain medications
  7. Chronic bacterial prostatitis (category 2)
    • frequent urinary tract infections
    • similar symptoms to acute bacteral prostatitis
    • general feeling of malaise, high fever/chill, nausea/vomiting
    • between episodes of infection, may be asymptomatic or have mild to severe symptoms
  8. Treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (category 2)
    • same as category 1 - acute bacterial prostatitis
    • IV antibiotics if hospitalized
    • oral antibiotics for two to four weeks
    • pain medications
  9. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain (category 3)
    • lasts for at least three months, remain about the same over time or cycles between less and more severe
    • improves over time without treatment
  10. Treatment of chronic prostatitis/pelvic pain (category 3)
    • alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists
    • pain medications
    • muscle relaxants
  11. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (category 4)
    inflammation of the prostate gland found only by chance while undergoing tests for other condittions
  12. Diagnosis of asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (category 4)
    • digital rectal examination
    • bacterial cultures of urine or prostate gland fluid
    • cystoscopy
    • urodynamic testing
  13. Treatment of asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (category 4)
    may not require treatment
  14. Epididymitis
    • swelling or inflammation of the epididymis (tube that connects the testicle with the vas deferens)
    • common condition in men 19-35
    • major cause of hospital admissions in the military
  15. Causes of epididymitis
    • bacterial infection of urethra or urinary bladder
    • class III antidysrhythmic drug amiodarone
  16. Symptoms of epididymitis
    • unilateral or bilateral testicular swelling
    • mild to severe scrotal pain
    • tenderness in one or both testicles or groin
    • discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis
    • dysuria
    • penile discharge
    • bloody semen
    • pain during ejaculation
    • fever
  17. Prevention of epididymitis
    • abstinence
    • monogamy
    • use of condoms
    • early treatment for infection
  18. Diagnosis of epididymitis
    • physical/digital rectal examination
    • blood/urine testing for bacterial culture
    • ultrasound
    • testicular scan (nuclear)