Male repro bits and physiology.txt

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  1. Anatomy of male reproductive system
    • pair of testes that produce sperm and hormones
    • systems of tubules to transport sperm to outside
    • seminiferious tubules
    • epididymis
    • Vas derens
    • penis to transport sperm into female
    • accessory glands to secrete fluid into the urethra
    • seminal vesicles
    • bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands)
    • prostate gland
  2. Spermatogenesis
    • complex process for a simple purpose - to propagate life by combining male and female chromosomes
    • begins at puberty and lasts until death (in healthy males)
    • semen typically contains between 50-100 million sperm
    • under control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal HPG axis
    • phenotypic gender development during embryogenesis
    • sexual maturation during puberty
    • endocrine function of the testis: testosterone production in Leydig cells
    • exocrine function of the testis: sperm production in Sertoli cells
    • seminiferous tubules contain sperm at various developmental stages, while mature sperm stored in epididymis and vas deferens can live several weeks before ejaculation
  3. Seminal vesicles
    • comprises ~60% of semen volume
    • secretes alkaline fluid to neutralize acidity of male urethra and female reproductive tract
    • secretions contain fructose (nourish sperm), prostaglandins (to stimulate uterine contractions and propel sperm toward fallopian tubes) and proteins (coagulation reaction in semen)
  4. Prostate gland
    • about the size of a walnut located inferior to the urinary bladder encircling the utethra
    • comprises ~25% of semen volume
    • secretes a thin, milky-colored, alkaline fluid to enhance sperm motility and citric acid to nourish sperm and several protein-digesting enzymes such as prostate specific antigen (PSA)
  5. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands)
    • about the size of a pea located near the base of the penis on either side of the urethra
    • comprises ~15% of semen volume
    • secretes alkaline mucus-like fluid to neutralize acidity of urine residue in the urethra and acidity of the vagina
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Male repro bits and physiology.txt
2012-10-15 02:08:04
Male reproductive bits physiology

Naughty bits and physiology
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