socialogy midterm

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socialogy midterm
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2012-10-14 22:39:30
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soc 240 midterm mcc
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  1. What is meant by gender? 
    • Masculinity and femininity of cultural or
    • attitudinal characteristics.
  2. What is meant by “gender role?” 
    What society assigns to men and women based on their gender.
  3. Gender is not simply by a system of classification by which biological women and men are sorted, separated, and socialized into equivalent sex roles. T/F
    False
  4. What is problematic about comparing human gender difference with that of animals? 
    It is unclear what species we should use as the standard of measurement and different species have far different behaviors. 
  5. What is the limitation of calling a gender difference “natural” in order to explain it?
    All it tells us is that is found in nature and many contradictory and surprising things are found in nature.
  6. What is emphasized
    femininity? 
    A
  7. What evidence is there for the claim that females’ evolutionary strategy is promiscuity?
    Women are the only primates whose females enjoy sex more than their counterparts. 
  8. What evidence is there from cross-cultural studies of gender that male domination is not evitable?
    The fact that women’s status varies widely and depends on many cultural factors.
  9. What does“Berdache” Mean? (Said bird-ash)
    • It is a word from the custom in some Native American
    • cultures by which persons of one sex adopt the gender identity of the opposite sex. They are revered for having special powers.
  10. What is the function of rape in culture according to cross-cultured explanation of rape?
    To cement relations between men whether it is for continuum of male dominion or for concealing maternal independence. 
  11. What does the hegemonic definition of masculinity refer to?
    The idea that there is one ideal way to be male in our culture and all other versions fail.
  12. What is one example of the national debate about masculinity that Kimmel believes we are having?
    The crisis of young men and violence, which is generally discussed as a problem of youth.
  13. What is the “law” of excluded middle?
    The notion that there is a realm between gender binaries into which most mens’ and womens’ behavior and capacities fail.
  14. What is the major Darwinist claim of sociobiology about gender difference? 
    That males and females develop reproductive “strategies” to ensure that their own genetic code passes on to the next generation.
  15. In psychologist David Buss’ study of men and women from many different cultures, what features proved most prized in mates?
    • Love and kindness for both men and women was the most
    • prized trait.
  16. Why is sex-based division of labor necessarily biologically inevitable?
    Because societies are not static but rather change and continue.
  17. What is one problem with contemporary research about gender difference between the right and left hemisphere of the brain?
    That scientist keep changing their minds about the functions of each hemisphere, which one is superior, and which ones are  dominatedby men and women.
  18. How do some defenders of female circumcision criticize its opponents?
    By suggesting that opponents are projecting western values onto non-western cultures.
  19. Sociologists use the
    term  ______ to refer to the biological
    attributes of men and women. ______ is used to refer to the
    distinctive qualities of men that are culturally created.
    Sex, Gender
  20. What us sexual selection?
    Evolution of characteristics on the basis of reproductive advantage as opposed to survival advantage.
  21. The phrase used to describe how you see yourself in terms of femaleness or maleness is 
    Gender Identity 
  22. What is Kimmel’s Definition of “sex"?
    Male and Female
  23. Gilbert Herdts’ study of the Sambia and Papua-Newguinea found that male homosexual behavior in Sambian culture is _____________.
    A way young boys (11-12) are initiated into adulthood.
  24. What do cross-cultural studies reveal about sexual frequency?
    It varies immensely across cultures.
  25. What is the difference between gender equity and gender equality?
    Being fair to men and women.
  26. Why is gender equality so important?
    It is intrinsically linked to substantiate development and is vital to the realization of human rights for all.
  27. Which of the following statements is true regarding men and women in higher education?
    Men constitute the majority of majors in architecture, engineering, computer technology, and physical science.
  28. According to Kimmel, the meaning-of-mean-differences refers  to the fact that ___________.
    The difference within gender categories is greater than the differences between them.
  29. What did Frederick Engels claim is the basis of sex-based division of labor?
    • Private property which, according to Engel, is responsible for
    • capitalism, the nation-state and the nuclear family.
  30. Given the vast array of cultural differences in gender inequality and male domination, what factors appear to be central in determining women’s status in society?
    • A father’s involvement in child rearing and a woman’s control
    • of property after marriage. 
  31. What have anthropologist discovered different cultures’ definition of masculinity and femininity?
    • There is far more variability in definitions of masculinity than any
    • biologist would have predicted.
  32.  How did early 20th century scientists interpret intelligence tests where women consistently scored higher?
    Evidence that women are more intelligent than men. 
  33.  Why is it useful to speak of masculinity and femininity in the plural?
    • Because this allows us to acknowledge that masculinity and femininity mean different things to different groups of different people in different times.  (AKA how many times can you use
    • the word “different” in one sentence.)
  34. What is Darwin’s theory of natural selection?
    The idea that species adapt to their changing environments. 
  35. When [Where?] does fertilization occur?
    Internally within a woman.
  36. What are some biologists’ ways that hormonal differences produce secondary characteristics?
    Females’ right to self-determination
  37. Women report more stress-filled days because
    women have to juggle more family and work-related issues than men.
  38. According to Kimmel different styles of communication between men and women are derived from
    their relatively powerful or powerless place in society.
  39. Research suggests that single mothers’ and single fathers’ parenting stles are very different. T/F
    True
  40. Kimmel’s belief of gender equality is….
    it decreases the difference among people grounded in race, class, ethnicity, age, sexuality, and gender can be appreciated for our individual uniqueness as well as our commonality.
  41. In most hunting and gathering societies….
    Women have relatively equitable relationships because neither sex has the ability to provide all of the food necessary for survival
  42. In most common parts of India Suttee refers to….
    the sacrificial killing of a widow upon the death of her husband.
  43. What is the differential socialization theory of gender?
    The theory that men and women are different because we’ve been taught to be different.
  44. What do the nature and nurture sides of the gender debate have in common?
    They both consider gender differences to be irreversible.
  45. What does the author mean when he says that men are invisible?
    Gender only comes into discussion when we study women.
  46. Teachers who decote more time, effort and attention to boys than to girls in school are an example
    of
    Gender bias
  47. what is the privilege of invisibility?
    • The way in which people in majority identities can consider
    • themselves generic and universally generalizable and not acknowledge their privileged position by assuming that others have the same opportunities and rights as they do.
  48. What are the three areas from which current biological theories of gender differences draw their evidence?
    Brain Research, endocrinological research on sex hormones, and evolutionary theory.
  49. What is a problem with the argument that rape is an evolutionary adaption designed to ensure maximal reproduction?
    D. All of the above

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