Physical Anthropology Midterm
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What are the four different subcategories of Anthropology?
Physical Anthropology, Cultural Anthropology, Archaeology, and Linguistics
What is an allele?
A variation of a specific trait on a chromosome
What are the definitions of homozygous and heterozygous?
- Homozygous: having two of the same versions of a trait
- Heterozygous: having two different versions of a trait
What is mutation?
A change in genetic code that occurs when a secquence of a gene is altered.
What are the definitions of genotype and phenotype?
- Genotype: an organism's hereditary makeup
- Phenotype: an organism's external appearance
What is genetic drift?
The gain or loss of alleles in a population; adaptaion - environmental changes - selection pressures - allele frequencies shift
What is gene flow?
The exchange of alleles between populations
What are the definitions of micro- and macro-evolution?
- Micro-evolution: A short term effects on change in allele frequencies (evolution)
- Macro-evolution: A long term effects on change in allele frequencies (evolution
What is culture?
The patterns of behaviors and beliefs that are learned from and shared by other members of a group. A survival mechanism.
What is anthropology?
A social sceince that studies everything about humans throughout time and has 4 subfields which makes it interdisciplinary
What is ethnocentrism?
An individual's way is the best and only way to do something (bedouins).
What is cultural Relativism?
Understanding other cultures.
Name subcategories of Physical Anthropology. (There are 8)
Paleoanthropology, Forensic Anthropology, Osteology/Paleopathology, Evolution, Primates, Genetics/Molecular Anthropology, Aliometry, Medical Anthropology/Epidemiology
What is Darwinism?
- The theory that only advantaged organisms can and will survive.
- Variations accumulate over long spans of time and distinctions from ancestors
- Populations respond to pressures
- Species have common ancestors
What are somatic cells?
Gametes; every cell but eggs and sperm that reproduce by mitosis.
What is the difference betweeen meiosis and mitosis?
- Meiosis is the reproduction of sex cells
- Mitosis is the reproduction of any other type of cell
What are the Three Laws of Inheritance and what are their respective definitions?
- 1. Inheritance is particulate- Traits are inherited as discrete units
- 2. Law of Segregation- Traits don't disappear even if they aren't visible
- 3. Law of Independent Assortment- 1 set of genes does not affect another; indepedently inherited genes = random assortment
What is a gene?
A sequence of DNA in a chromosome; make proteins
What is the difference between Dominant and Recessive genes?
- Dominant genes are expressed, one allele will achieve visibility over another weaker (recessive gene)
- Recessive genes are hidden and must of two of the same to be expressed (no dominant in that field)
What is Lamarckism?
The law of acquired traits; traits are passed to offspring.
What is a nucleotide made of?
A sugar, a phosphate group, one of four nitrogenous bases
What is messenger RNA (mRNA)?
A form of RNA that carries the DNA code to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
What is tRNA?
A form of RNA essential to the assembly of a protein.
What is the purpose of an autosome?
To govern all physical characteristics except sex determination.
What is homoplasy?
The development that leads to homologous structures.
What are the three types of species origins?
What is Allopatric speciation?
Itrequires complete reproductive isolation within a population leading to geographic separation from ancestral population
What is Parapatric speciation?
Only partial reproduction isolation is required; Ranges of populations may be partially overlapping
What is Sympatric speciation?
Occurs completely within one population with no reproductive isolation; not well supported by contemporary evidence and is the least significant of the models
What is Phyletic Gradualism?
The traditional view of evolution that emphasized that change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages
What is Punctuated Equilibrium?
Evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change.
What is polymorphism?
Occurs when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species; traits with two or more alleles.
What is the Hardy-Weinberg Equillibrium?
Hypothetical set of conditions in a population in which NO evolution (change in allele frequencies) occurs: Infinitely large population (to eliminate the possibility of random genetic drift or changes in allele frequencies due to chance); Mating is random; Natural selection isn’t selecting for or against any traits; no mutation or gene flow to change allele frequencies.
What is the Arboreal Hypothesis?
The most important factor in the evolution of primates.; Prehensile hands & forward-facing eyes are adapted to climbing in the trees.
What is the Visual-Predation Hypothesis?
Primates may have first adapted to shrubby forest undergrowth and the lowest tiers of the forest canopy; Forward facing eyes enabled primates to judge distance when grabbing for insects
What is the Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis?
Primates may have fed off of flowering plants (angiosperms)?
What are the different types of locomotion?
Vertical climbing and leaping, terrestrial quadrupedalism, knuckle walking, brachiation, prehensile tails
What are the basics of a New World Monkey?
- Approx. 70 species found in a wide range of arboreal environment; outward facing noses; size, diet and ecological adaptation vary; some possess prehensile
- tails; all diurnal, except owl monkey; quadrupedal, except spider monkeys are semibrachiators; most live in mixed-sex groups of all ages
What are the basics of Old World Monkeys?
- Habitat ranges from tropical jungle to semiarid desert to seasonally snow-covered areas; Cercopithecidae: Cercopithecines- More omnivorous with cheek pouches, arboreal, mostly found in Africa, Colobines- Mainly eat leaves; •most are quadrupedal and primarily
- arboreal; ischial callosities, hardened skin on buttocks; sexual dimorphism
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