MicroFA

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Author:
docdee
ID:
177698
Filename:
MicroFA
Updated:
2012-10-21 18:12:01
Tags:
usmlemix
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Description:
micro-first aid
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  1. Catalase + organisms
    • SSPACE: 
    • S. aureus
    • Serratia
    • Pseudomonas
    • Actinomyces
    • Candida
    • E.coli
  2. Vaccines with polysaccharide capsule - function?
    • Promotes T cell activation and class switching
    • Polysaccharide capsule alone: IgM
  3. Features of endotoxin
    • Outer cell membrane of gram (-) bacteria
    • Not secreted from cell
    • LPS - released when lysed (polypeptide in exotoxin)
    • Causes TNF-a and IL-1 --> fever and shock
    • Poorly antigenic
    • Stable at 100C for 1 hour
  4. Bugs that increase cAMP
    • 1. ETEC (Heat-labile toxin)
    • 2. Bacillus anthrax (mimics AC)
    • 3. Vibrio cholera (activates Gs constantly)
    • 4. Bordatella pertussis (disables Gi)

    Increases Cl- and water secretion
  5. Bugs that increase cGMP
    • 1. ETEC (heat-stabile toxin) 
    • 2. Yersinia enterocolytica

    increases Na+ and water reabsorption
  6. Bugs that undergo lysogenic transduction
    • ABCDE
    • Shiga toxin
    • Botulism toxin
    • Choleral toxin
    • Diptheria toxin
    • Exotoxin A of S. pyogenes
  7. B-hemolytic organisms
    • Group A strep
    • Group B strep
    • S.aureus
    • Listeria monocytogenes
  8. E.faciaelis
    • Group D strep: grouping based on carb group on cell wall
    • causes UTI and subacute endocarditis
    • PenG resistant
    • Grows in NaCl and bile
  9. CAMP factor
    • S.agalataie
    • Increases hemolysis produced by S.aureus
  10. Lab test for C.diptheria
    • Gram positive rods with metachromatic blue and red granules 
    • Elek test for toxin
    • Tellurite agar
    • Eschar: painless ulcer caused by edema factor
    • Bug: Bacillus anthrax (cutaneous)
  11. Leprematous form of leprosy
    • presents diffusely
    • low cell-mediated
    • high humoral (Th2) immunity
    • LETHAL
  12. Tuberculoid response of leprosy
    • Few hypoesthetic plaques
    • High cell-mediated immunity (Th1)
  13. Treatment and side-effects of leprosy
    • Long-term oral dapsone
    • a/e = hemolysis and methemoglobinemia

    Other tx: Rifampin, combo of clofazimine and dapsone
  14. How can E.coli break down lactose
    B-galactosidase: breaks it down to glucose and galactose
  15. Treatment of Neisseria
    • Ceftriaxone
    • Rifampin prophylaxis for N.meningitis
  16. Transmission mode of H.influenza
    Invasive disease caused by
    • Aerosol
    • Capsule type B
  17. Legionella:
    transmission mode
    detection
    treatment
    • Aerosol transmission from water sources (no person to person)
    • Ag presence in the urine
    • Erythromycin
  18. Painful black lesions on skin called ecthema gangrenosum. Bug association
    • Pseudomonas (water-source)
    • Due to sepsis in neutropenic patients
  19. 3 toxins of Pseudomonas
    • 1. pyocyanin (blue-green pigment)
    • 2. exotoxin (inactivates EF-2) 
    • 3. endotoxin (fever, shock)
  20. Which E.coli causes dysentery but doesn't produce a toxin
    • EIEC
    • (invasion of intestinal mucosa)
  21. How does EHEC cause dysentery
    • HUS
    • Endothelium swells and narrows lumen:
    • mechanical hemolysis (anemia)
    • decreases renal blood flow (renal failure)
    • damaged endothelium consumes platelets (thrombocytopenia)
  22. Bug that causes nosocomial UTIs
    Klebsiella
  23. What virulence factor of Salmonella causes osteomyelitis
    • Capsule (VF for sickle-cell patients)
    • ** not the flagella **
  24. Salmonella typhi causes a carrier state in what organ
    Gallbladder
  25. Movement of Shigella
    • Actin polymerization
    • (do not have flagella)
    • More virulent than Salmonella (can cause infection with 10 organisms vs. Salmonella that needs 10^5)
  26. Transmission of Campylobacter
    • Fecal-oral 
    • most common in children thru poultry, domestic animals, milk
  27. Bug that produces abdominal pain like Crohn's or appendicitis
    • Yersinia enterocolytica
    • Daycare centres
    • From pet feces
  28. Urease (+) bugs
    • Proteus
    • Klebsiella
    • H.pylori
    • Cryptococcus
    • Nocardia
    • Ureaplasma
  29. Borrelia
    • Spirochete with axial filaments
    • Only spirochete to be visualized under aniline dyes (Wright', Giemsa)
  30. Pt. travels to the caribbean and returns with severe form of jaundice, renal dysfunction, anemia, fever, hemorrhage
    • Weils disease (icterohemorrhagic leptospirosis)
    • Leptospira (animal urine)
  31. Stages of Lyme disease
    • 1. Rash
    • 2. Bell's palsy, AV block
    • 3. Migratory poly-and chronic monoathritis
  32. Stages of syphilis
    • 1. painless chancre
    • 2. condyloma lata, maculopapular rash on hands and soles
    • 3. ARP, Tabes, gummas, Charcoats joint, stroke without hypertension
  33. Young boy presents with anterior bowing of tibia, flat nose, CN VIII deafness, notching of the upper teeth.
    Congenital syphilis
  34. Black pigmented skin and river blindness. Bug and tx
    • Onchocerca volvulus
    • Ivermectin
  35. Undercooked pork and larvae encyst in the muscle
    Trichinella spiralis (roundworm)
  36. Undercooked pork causes mass lesions in the brain
    Taenia solium (tapeworm)
  37. Eggs in dog feces and cause cysts in the liver
    Echinococcus granulosus
  38. Undercooked fish 
    Inflammation of the biliary tract --> pigmented gallstones
    Cholangiocarcinoma
    Clonorchis senesis (liver fluke)
  39. Undercooked crab meat causing hemoptysis
    Paragonimus westermani (lung fluke)
  40. Portal hypertension and hematuria, freshwater snails as host
    Schistosoma
  41. Viruses with segmented genomes exchange material
    Reassortment
  42. Virus A is non-infective; virus B can complement Vius A to make a functional protein
    Complementation
  43. Which DNA viruses are not infectious
    • HBV
    • Poxvirus (carries own DNA-dep RNA polymerase)
  44. Which RNA viruses don't replicate in the cytoplasm
    • Influenza
    • Retrovirus
  45. All enveloped viruses acquire envelope from plasma membrane, except
    HSV (acquire from nuclear membrane)
  46. treatment for malaria
    • Chloroquine
    • Mefloquine (if resistant)
    • Primaquine for P.vivax/ovale dormant forms in the liver
  47. Triad of toxoplasma; tx?
    • Hydrocephalus
    • Intra-cranial calcifications
    • Chorioretinitis

    Tx: Pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine
  48. Hemorrhagic cystitis and conjuctivitis in young daycare children
    Adenovirus (DNA)
  49. Polyomavirus types
    • 1 JC leads to PML in HIV
    • 2 BK targets the kidney
  50. What virus is latent in the mononuclear cells?
    CMV
  51. RNA viruses that are segmental
    • Rotavirus
    • Orthomyxovirus
  52. Picornaviruses are fecal-oral with the exception of?
    Rhinovirus (acid labile: destroyed by stomach acid)
  53. Virus that causes the fever associated with jaundice, black vomit
    • Yellow virus
    • Flavi (arbovirus)
  54. Rotavirus causes what damage in the GI
    • Villous destruction with atrophy
    • (decreased absorption of Na+ and water)
  55. Influenza virus has hemagluttinin and neuraminidase
    • Hemagluttinin: promotes viral entry
    • Neuraminidase: promotes progeny virus release
  56. Truncal rash that starts at the head and moves downward
    Postauricular lymphadenopathy
    Rubella (German measles)
  57. Paramyxoviruses contain what virulence factor
    • Fusion (F) protein
    • Causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multi-nucleated giant cells

    Tx: palivzumab = monoclonal Ab against the F protein
  58. HIV binds to what factors on T cells and macrophages. Mutations on CCR5?
    • T cells: CCR5 and CXCR4 and CD4
    • macropahges: CCR5 and CD4

    • homozygous CCR5 = immunity
    • heterozygous CCR5 = slower infectious course
  59. Structural proteins and functions of HIV
    • 1) gp160 = gp120 for attachment (crosses the placenta) + gp41 for fusion and entry
    • 2) gag (p24) = capsid entry
    • 3) pol = RT gene
  60. HIV targets what T cells and why do pts suffer from opportunistic dz?
    • CD4 T cells
    • Cannot make Ab such as IgG, IgA, or IgE
    • (don't need T cells to make IgM = no class switching)
  61. Difference between Kaposi's and bacillary angiomatosis on lab findings
    • Kaposi's: lymphocytic infiltrate (HHV-8)
    • Bacillary: neutrophilic infiltrate (bartonella henslae)
  62. C-J disease and prion pathology
    Conversion into a B-pleated sheet (PrPsc) which is transmissible and resists degradation
  63. Bug that colonizes skin
    S. epidermitis
  64. Protozoan that causes bloody diarrhea
    Entameoba histolytica
  65. Emperic treatment for meningitis
    • Ceftriaxone
    • Clindamycin
    • Ampicillin (if Listeria)
  66. Neonatal manifestation of CMV
    Hearing loss
  67. Neonatal manifestations of Rubella
    Respiratory transmission

    PDA, cataracts, deafness
  68. Meningitis in unimmunized children that colonizes the nasopharynx

    If meningitis causes myalgia and paralysis
    H.influenza type B

    Poliovirus
  69. Branching rods in oral infection
    • Actinomyces 
    • (also has sulfur granules)

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