Chapter 7: Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the Medieval World

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DesLee26
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Chapter 7: Late Antiquity and the Emergence of the Medieval World
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2012-10-15 00:41:40
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Hour Quiz II Part Germanic Kingdoms`
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500: Western Roman Empire replaced by kingdoms ruled by German kings. Germans ruled, but outnumbered by Romans, who controlled economic resources. Both Christian, but Germans were Arian Christians and viewed as heretics.
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  1. I.                  
    The Ostrogothic
    Kingdom of Italy

    a.     
    Zeno
    • i. Roman emperor in Constantinople who wasn’t pleased with Odoacer’s actions and plotted to unseat him
    •     1. Brought German tribe, Ostrogoths,
    •       a. Recovered from defeat by Huns under Theodoric and attacked Constantinople
    •     2. Zeno invited Theodoric to act as deputy to defeat Odoacer and bring Italy back into empire
    •       a. Accepted--> marched into Italy--> killed Odoacer--> established himself as ruler of Italy in 493
  2. The
    Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy

    Theodoric
    • b. Theodoric
    •   i. He received Roman education while hostage in Constantinople
    •   ii. Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy
    •     1. maintained Roman tradition of government
    •     2. After control of Italy,
    •         a. Eager to create mix of Ostrogothic and Roman practices
    •         b. Maintained entire structure of imperial government and established separate systems of rule for Ostrogoths and Romans
    •                i. Italian under Roman law by Roman officials
    •                ii. Ostrogoths governed by customs and officials of their own
    •                        1. Only they controlled the army
    • 3. Friction between groups still developed
    •     a. Religion
    •         i. Ostrogthic Arian Christianity was heresy to Italian western Christians
    •            1. Caused harsh rule of Theodoric
  3. The Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy
    After Theodoric death
    • 1.     
    • After his death in 526, his successors encountered
    • opposition from imperial forces of Byzantine (East)

    • a.     
    • Justinian

    •                                                                                                                                      
    • i.     
    • Byzantine armies reconquered Italy (535-552),
    • devastating peninsula and destroying Rome and great urban center of Mediterranean
    • world

    • 1.     
    • Brief due to Lombards invading and conquering Italy
    • in 568

    • a.     
    • Harsh rulers and cared little for Roman traditions

    • b.     
    • Their fighting allowed some Byzantine control
  4. Visigoth Kingdom of Spain
    Similarities to Ostrogothic kingdom
    •                                                               i.     
    • Both favored coexistence between Roman and German
    • populations

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Both featured warrior caste dominating larger native
    • population

    •                                                          
    • iii.     
    • Both continued to maintain much of Roman government
    • while excluding Romans from power
  5. Visigothic kingdom of Spain
    Differences
    •                                                               i.     
    • Visigothic rulers converted to Catholic Christianity
    • instead of Arianism, ending tension

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Laws banning intermarriage dropped

    • 1.     
    • Fusion of people

    •                                                          
    • iii.     
    • New body of law common to both people
  6. Visigothic kingdom of Spain
    Weakness of kingdom
    •                                                               i.     
    • Fighting over kingship

    • 1.     
    • No hereditary monarchy

    • 2.     
    • No established procedure for successors

    • 3.     
    • Church tried to help

    • a.     
    • Failed to stop feuds

    • 4.     
    • Assassinations remained way of life in Visigothic
    • kingdom 
  7. The Frankish Kingdom
    • a.     
    • Long lasting due to Clovis (482-511), the leader of
    • one group, and later, all Franks

    • b.     
    • Clovis

    •                                                              
    • i.     
    • 500: Catholic Christian

    • 1.     
    • Roman catholic church regarded Arians as heretics

    • a.     
    • His conversion gained Catholic church support

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Conversion caused conversion of Franks

    •                                                          
    • iii.     
    • Pose as defender of orthodox Catholic faith in order
    • to justify his expansion

    • 1.     
    • Defeated Alemanni and Visigoths

    • 2.     
    • 510: established powerful and large Frankish kingdom
  8. Frankish Kingdom
    Clovis
    Responsibility adn Reliance
    •                                                               i.     
    • Responsible for establishment of Frankish kingdom
    • under Merovingian dynasty

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Relied on Frankish followers to rule in old Roman
    • city-states under title of count

    • 1.     
    • Forced to share power with Gallo-Roman Catholic bishops

    • a.     
    • Led to fusion of Latina and German cultures

    •                                                                                                                                      
    • i.     
    • Church served to preserve Latin culture

    •                                                          
    • iii.     
    • Spent last years of life ensuring survival of
    • dynasty by killing off relatives who were leaders of other groups of Franks
  9. Frankish Kingdom
    Successors
    •                                                               i.     
    • Sons divided newly created kingdom into three main
    • areas

    • 1.     
    • Austrasia (ancient Frankish lands on both sides of
    • the Rhine

    • 2.     
    • Neustria (northern Gaul)

    • 3.     
    • Former kingdom of Burgundy

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • All three ruled by members of Merovingian dynasty

    • 1.     
    • Within three territories, members assisted by
    • powerful nobles

    • a.     
    • Frankish society possessed ruling class that
    • intermarried with old Gallo-Roman senatorial class to form new nobility

    •                                                                                                                                      
    • i.     
    • Took advantage of their position to expand own lands
    • and wealth at expense of monarchy

    •                                                                                                                                    
    • ii.     
    • w/in royal household, major dommus, mayor of the palace, began to
    • overshadow king
  10. The Frankish Kingdom
    Successors of Clovis
    At the beginning of the eighth century, the most
    important political development in Frankish kingdom was ___
    • At the beginning of the eighth century, the most
    • important political development in Frankish kingdom was                                                               Rise of Charles Martel, who was mayor of palace of
    • Austrasia beginning in 714

    • 1.     
    • Martel led troops that defeated Muslims near
    • Poitiers in 732 and by the time of his death in 741 was ruler of the three
    • kingdoms

    • a.     
    • Not ruler, but efforts enabled new dynasty
  11. The Frankish Kingdom
    Successors of Clovis
    Sixth and Seventh centuries
    • a.     
    • Sixth and seventh centuries, Frankish kingdom
    • witnessed fusion between Gallo-Roman and Frankish cultures and peoples, a process
    • accompanied by a significant decline in Roman standards of civilization and
    • commercial activity

    •                                                              
    • i.     
    • Franks were warriors and barely encouraged urban
    • life or trade

    • 1.     
    • Commerce declined in interior

    • 2.     
    • 750:Frankish Gaul= agricultural society with
    • Latifundia

    • Germanic concepts
    • replaced Roman governmental structure
  12. Anglo-saxon England
    • a.     
    • Barbarian pressures on Western Roman Empire forced
    • withdrawal of Roman armies and abandonment of Britain

    •                                                              
    • i.     
    • Led to Angles and Saxons settlements

    • 1.     
    • Resisted by Celtic Britons who still controlled west

    • b.     
    • German invaders created small kingdoms
  13. Society of the Germanic Kingdoms
    Influence of ROman Society
    •                                                               i.     
    • Meaningful fusion of Roman and German upper classes
    • in new kingdoms

    • 1.     
    • Intermarriage led to new ruling class in Merovingian
    • Frankish lands

    • a.     
    • Construction of Roman-style villas

    • b.     
    • Adoption of Frankish weapons

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Crucial social bond among Germanics were family,
    • especially the extended or patriarchal family

    • 1.     
    • Worked land together and passed down to succeeding
    • generations

    • Extended family
    • provided protection
  14. Society of the Germanic Kingdoms
    Germanic Law
    •                                                               i.     
    • Affected by concept of family and kinship

    • 1.     
    • Murder: offense against society and handled by court

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Personal

    • 1.     
    • Injury by one could lead to feud of revenge of
    • injured party’s family on kin of wrongdoer

    • a.     
    • Savage acts of revenge

    • 2.     
    • Out of controlà
    • led to wergild, which was amount paid by a wrongdoer to family who was injured
    • or killed

    • Vaule of person that
    • varied by social status
  15. Society of Germanic Kingdoms
    Law of Salic Franks and Under German Customary Law
    • Law of Salic Franks
    • --Offense against noble cost more than against free
    • person/ slave

    Under German customary law,

    • 1.     
    • Compurgation and ordeal were two most commonly used
    • procedures for determining guilt and payment of wergild

    • a.     
    • Compurgation was swearing of oath by accused, backed
    • up by “oathhelpers” (12 or 25 people) who would swear that they were innocent

    • b.     
    • Ordeal based on divine intervention

    •                                                                                                                                      
    • i.     
    • Innocent wouldn’t be harmed 
  16. Society in Germanic Kingdoms
    Frankish Family
    •                                                               i.     
    • Extended family at center of social organization

    •                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Structure simple

    • 1.     
    • Males dominated and made decisions

    • 2.     
    • Women obeyed father and later husband

    • a.     
    • Window holds property without male guardian

    • b.     
    • Wergeld of a wife of
    • childbearing age was higher than that of man
  17. Society in Germanic Kingdoms
     Marriage
    • 1.     
    • Fathers/ uncles arrange marriages for  good of family without child consideration

    • a.     
    • Engagement ceremony

    •                                                                                                                                      
    • i.     
    • Son-in-law made payment symbolizing purchase of
    • authority over bride

    •                                                                                                                                    
    • ii.     
    • Essential feature: physical union of couple in bed

    • 1.     
    • Before: wife be a virgin to make sure father of
    • child known

    • a.     
    • Symbolized ability of bloodline continuation

    •                                                                                                                                                                                                              
    • i.     
    • Adultery= women severely punished; men not

    •                                                                                                                                                                                                            
    • ii.     
    • Divorce initiated by husband; wives went back home
  18. Society in Germanic Kingdoms
    Women
    • 1.     
    • Legal status reflected material condition

    • 2.     
    • 10-15% died in childbearing

    • 3.     
    • Domestic labor

    • 4.     
    • Childbearing most important

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