fatal progressive flaccid paralysis of all voluntary muscles
ingestion of botulinum toxin in contaminated food or water
cattle, sheep, goats are more affected than pigs, dogs, cats (becaue carnivores tolerate higher levels of toxins)
often from a carcass, or decaying plant material
Epizootics occur in waterfowl in eastern alberta lakes (epidemic because the bugs eat the decaying plants and the bugs concentrate the toxins- ducks eat the bugs which are like toxin pills and then they drown becaue their neck muscles cant hold up their heads)
Treatment: supportive, only possible in subacute cases
Prevention: good husbandry, disposal of carcasses, discard spoiled feed (silage), vaccination in enzootic areas
What is Blackleg & what type of disease is it?
peracute (comes on too fast before know effected), noncontagious, highly fatal
gaseous edema of muscles, severe toxemia
common in young cattle, rare in sheep
route of entry probably from eating in pasture and in outbreak settings, so get animals out of the field!
mostly in hot months
high economic losses (sometimes 100% mortality)
Anaerobic, motile, spore-forming
C/S (clinical signs): found dead, lameness, swelling
R/O: anthrax, lightning strike
treatment: usually too late
Prevention: vaccinate, move from affected pastures, burn or deep burial of carcasses
so may occur if vaccine failure
What is Clostridial Enterotoxemia & what type of disease is it?
Clostridium perfringens Clostridial disease
may be isolated from GIT of most healthy animals
5 types: A to E
Types A, C, D not common in North America
treatment: antibiotics if animal is still alive
What are some examples of clostridial diseases?
Tetanus, Botulism, Black leg, Clostridial enterotoxemia
What are some of the characteristics of Fungi?
eukaryotic, lack chlorophyll
chemotropic (nutrition by absorption)
grow in many forms depending if they are facultative anaerobes or strict aerobic