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2010-05-04 15:27:26
PR319 chapter Test

Terms and Concepts for Test 4 of PR319
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  1. News
    the report of an event or a situation that has significance or interest or both
  2. Hard news
    information that has an immediate impact on the audience
  3. Soft news
    opposite of hard news
  4. Conflict
    an event that demonstrates antagonism, opposition, or disturbance of the status quo is likely to be judged newsworthy
  5. Magnitude
    The larger the event (or the more people it affects or hte more moeny it involves) the more likely it will be judged newsworthy
  6. Oddity
    • if something is unusual enough, it will be covered
    • "man bites dog" is news
  7. Proximity
    • the closer the occurrence, the more likely it will receive news coverage
    • always look for the local angle
  8. Prominence
    well-known persons tend to have their activities covered, and coverage confers status on those covered
  9. Nonprofits prominence
    For nonprofits, prominence is one of the reasons we know so much about some organizations and not others. They live and die by the effectiveness of their public relations because they do not have enough money for advertising
  10. Timeliness
    things that happen close to a medium's deadline usually get preference over earlier occurences
  11. Consequence
    stories that educate and inform or relate to audience lifestyles tend to be covered by the media
  12. Interest
    this refers to stories that are entertaining, such as human interest features
  13. Reporter's deadlines
    • Morning papers - 2 or 3 p.m. the afternoon before
    • Weeklies - a few days before press time
    • TV - mornings or early afternoons
    • Radio - less particular
  14. On the record
    anything you say may be used and attributed to you
  15. Off the record
    • nothing you say may be used
    • use this sparingly and only with a reporter you know well
    • if you don't want it reported, DON'T SAY IT
  16. On background
    what you say is directly quotable, but it may not be attributed to you

    "someone who has been briefed on the matter said..."
  17. On deep background
    the reporter uses your information as if it comes from his or her own knowledge, or treats it as common knowledge

    "rumors around town..."
  18. Typing format
    only one side of the paper and double spaced
  19. Address block format
    • upper left hand corner of the first page
    • name and address of the organization, your name, and how to reach you at and after work
  20. date format
    • release date is used to ensure that all media receiving the release can use it at the same time
    • right margin, slightly lower than the bottom of the address block
  21. embargo
    Don't release in advance

    if a mayor is giving a speech but has to cancel, we don't want a story released saying "the mayor said this in a speech today..."
  22. sample headline
    simple, direct, and written in the active voice
  23. Lead
    • summarizes the most important aspect of the story
    • who, what, when, where, why, how and "the hook" about your organization
  24. Body
    • inverted pyramid format
    • begins with the most important details and ends with the least important
  25. Exclusives
    news release intended for only one paper or publication
  26. Special
    a news release written in a certain style for a specific publication, but is released to other media
  27. Noting Exclusives and Specials
    should be indicated immediately below the release date
  28. controlled media
    those in which practitioners have the say over what is said, how it is said, when it is said, and - to some extent - to whom it is said
  29. uncontrolled media
    those over which practitioners have no direct role in decisions about media content. Media gatekeepers decide if something is reported, what is reported, when it is reported, and to whom it is reported
  30. Three key changes with implications for PR
    • 1. audiences have become fragmented
    • 2. audiences are more active
    • 3. a "journalist" is anybody with a cell phone camera and internet
  31. Instrumental newspaper readers
    use newspapers to get information they think will be useful for daily living
  32. opinion makers newspaper readers
    use newspapers to get advice and guidance for forming and validating an opinion
  33. Pleasure newspaper readers
    use newspaper reading as an enjoyable habit
  34. ego booster newspaper readers
    use newspapers as a source of information for impressing others
  35. Scanner newspaper readers
    use newspapers for many and varied reasons, but there is no single motivation or pattern strong enough to suggest they belong in one of the other four types