clean water act

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Author:
kamato
ID:
177740
Filename:
clean water act
Updated:
2012-10-15 17:26:23
Tags:
sewage pollution
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  1. Strategy of CWA
    • 1. sewage treatment requirements
    • 2. sewage effuluent standards
    • 3. NPDES permit requirements
    • 4. swimming water quality standards
    • 5. monitoring
    • 6. fines for failures to meet standards
  2. recreational use of water-disease transmission
    • pathogen source
    • environ
    • pathogen survival
    • exposure
    • infection
    • disease
  3. sewage-borne pathogens (3 major types) 
    • 1. bacteria
    • 2. virus
    • 3. protozoa 
  4. EPA WHO strategy: use fecal indicator bacteria to establish WQ standards
    • 1. pathogens
    • 2. limit concentraion of fecal coliform, e. coli and enterococci in recreational water to safe level
    • 3. monitor beach water for fecal bacteria and close beach 
  5. positive impacts of EPA regulations
    • 1. guidelines for all parties
    • 2. fecal contamination focus
    • 3. empowers agencies to prevent pollution
    • 4. effective
  6. negative impacts of EPA regulations 
    • 1. not applicable to all states
    • 2. non-sewage pathogens like leptospirosis, stapj and vibrio) are not covered by regulations
  7. enteric or sewage pathogens
    • 1. transmitted by ingestion of water
    • 2. pathogen is feces
    • 3. addresed by WQ standards
    • 4. monitoringed data available
    • 5. data from epi studies
  8. non-sewage sources of pathogens
    • 1. tranmistted y contact with water
    • 2. pathogen source-urine, water, people
    • 3. not addressed by WQ standards
    • 4. methods not approved for monitoring
    • 5. no data available
  9. Conclusions of EPA epi studies
    • 1. set WQ standard based on concentrations of fecal bacterica in water to predic an acceptable health effects level
    • 2. fecal indicator bacertia in recreational water predicts disease rate 
    • 3. not if its non-sewage source
  10. EPA 2 assumptions for WQ
    • 1. only fecal bacteria is from feces or sewage
    • 2. cannot multuple under envir conditions
  11. alternative fecal indicator for hawaii
    • C. perfringens
    • an anaerobi bacteria that grows in the intestines of man and animal but not in soil
    • -survive as stable spore in sewage/ but cannot multiply
    • -in hawaii based on exceeding ambient levels
    • -reliably shows presence of sewage in environmental waters (streams, oceans)
    • -used by hawaii doh
  12. principals of microbial ecology
    • 2. conditions select for microbial populations in the environment
    • -tropical is humid and waym
  13. leptospirosis
    • 1. bacteria infected animals (rats)
    • 2. rat urine transmission (asymptomatic) 
    • 3. incubation 0-30days
    • 4. mild -flu- serious-kidney and liver failure
    • 5. treatable with anti-biotics
    • 6. 50% in hawaii
    • not reportable since 1994. 
  14. Alternative indicators?
    • viruses not completly removed.
    • -virus infectivity assays (can tell % of cells by volume)
    • -protocol validation-detection of enteric viruses in sewage using molecular technology
    • -detection of NoV GII in environmental waters
    • -only testing sequence of a gene. 

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