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What is Declarative Memory?
- The recall of facts
- Easy to form, easy to forget
What is Non Declarative Memory?
- Memory for Skills
- Does not involve conscious recollection
- Hard to form, hard to forget
What are the 3 types of memory?
- Short term
- Working Memory 'Held in mind'
- Long term
What is Retrograde Amnesia?
Amnesia of events prior
What is Anterograde Amnesia?
- Amnesia of events after
- May require more repetition to learn
What is Transient Global Amnesia?
- Temporary Anterograde Amnesia
- eg. From anaesthetics
Where is working memory held?
- Hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, temporal lobe
- Parietal - Modality specific eg. vision
Where is Declarative memory formed?
Medial Temporal lobes, Hippocampus and nearby cortical areas
What is associated with the processing of memory?
Hippocampus and Temporal Lobes communicates with parts of the Thalamus and Hypothalamus to the Frontal Cortex
How is Non Declarative Memory accessed?
- Corpus Striatum acts as motor signalling loop
- Association Cortex, Basal Nuclei and Substantia Nigra signal Thalamus which communicates with premotor Cortex
What are the 3 basic steps of Learning?
- 1. Electrical Impluses increase
- 2. Secondary Messenger molecules modify synaptic proteins (Ca2+)
- 3. Structural alteration of synapses creates permanent memories which can involve new protein synthesis or new synapses or circuits
What is Long Term Potential and Long Term Depression?
- LTP - Stimulation of two neurons that changes their strength
- LTP is considered a mechanism that underlies learning and memory
- LTD - Low intracellular Ca2+ activate phosphatases
What is the act of Glutamate as an Excitatory neurotransmitter on the Hippocampus?
- 1.AMPA binds to Glutamate causing Na+ to enter, depolarising the membrane
- 2.Glutamate binds to NMDA allowing Ca2+ to enter
- 3.Kinases are activated, phosphorylation of proteins occur
- May Cause a) increased AMPA reception
- b) Formation of new dendrites
- c) Formation of new synapses
What is Procedural Learning?
Motor response to sensory input
What is Associative Learning?
Associations between events eg. Pavlov's dogs
What is non-Associative learning?
- Change in behaviour WITHOUT response to positive or negative reinforcement
- eg. Poking sea slugs makes them curl inward, but doesn't after a while
What is the Limbic System?
Areas in the brain which include the Hypothalamus and Amygdala, key in emotion
What is the role of the Amygdala?
- Heightens emotions
- Enhances fear and agression
- Allows recognition of emotion
What is the neurological path of Predatory agression?
Hypothalamus - Midbrain - Brain stem
What is the neurological path of Affective agression?
Hypothalamus - Periaqueductal Grey Matter - Brainstem
What is the role of the Hypothalamus in respects to fear?
- Autonomic 'fight or flight'
- Projects to Cortex - emotional experience