anatomy test 2.txt

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anatomy test 2.txt
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anatomy test 2 bio 261
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  1. 2.Directionally speaking, how are vertebra numbered? (lab manual)
    • Numbered from superior to inferior, C1-7, T1-12, L1-5, S1-5, Co1-4
    • Adults commonly have 33 vert, arranged in 5 regions: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 fused sacral and 4 fused coccygeal. superior to inferior ex. C7 ( last cervical vertebra) is superior to T1 (first thoracic vertebra)
    • superior to inferior
  2. 3. Describe the difference between the primary and secondary curvatures of the vertebral column. Where do these curvatures occur? (lab manual, A&M)
    • Primary- these curvatures develop during the fetal period (3rd to 9th month) of intrauterine development-thoracic concave anteriorly
    • sacral concave anteriorly

    secondary- start development in utero during the latter months of gestation but complete their development after birth these curvatures are concave posterior

    • •Cervical- begins when the child starts holding their head up with out support
    • •Lumbar- begins development when the child starts to walk, variations of curvatures occur between male and female
  3. Which curvature is more pronounced in the male (Thoracic), Female (lab manual)?
    Thoracic is more pronounced in male

    the lumbar curvature is more pronounced in the female at the lumbosacaral angle (junction between L5 and S1)

    Also the sacral curvature has a sharper angle in females
  4. Identify three malformations of the vertebral column.

    Identify the region of the vertebral column where each occurs. (lab manual, A&M)
    • Kyphosis: humpback= an abnormal increase it the thoracic curvature (curves posteriourly). b/c of erosion of anteriour part of vert.
    • Scoliosis: crooked or curved back: abnormal lateral curvaturethat is accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae. Spinus processes turn.
    • Lordosis: hollow back = anterior rotation of the pelvis at hip joints, producing an increase in lumbarcurvature. b/c of weak trunk muscle/alteration in normal line of gravity (pregnancy)
  5. what is kyphosis? and where in back does it occur?
    Kyphosis: humpback= an abnormal increase it the thoracic curvature (curves posteriourly). b/c of erosion of anteriour part of vert.
  6. what is Scoliosis and where does it occur in back?
    crooked or curved back: abnormal lateral curvature that is accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae. Spinus processes turn.
  7. What is lordosis and where does it occur in back?
    hollow back = anterior rotation of the pelvis at hip joints, producing an increase in lumbarcurvature. b/c of weak trunk muscle/alteration in normal line of gravity (pregnancy)
  8. 5. What is the nucleus pulposus? Why is this
    important? (lab manual, A&M)
    gelatinous mass is the central core of the IV disc. Mainly water. Remnant of the embryonic notchord. Is what is extruded in certain types of herniated discs.
  9. 6. Be able to describe a typical vertebra. In what region of the back are
    these vertebrae found? (lab manual, lab, A&M)
    • vert arch
    • vert body,
    • 7 processes-
    • o 4 articular- costal ribfacets or demifacets (two superior and two inferior, spring from the junctionsof the pedicles and laminae.) two transverse, and one spinous.

    o the thoracic vertebrae are considered to betypical
  10. 7. In what area of the vertebral column doesa dislocation of a vertebra most commonly occur? (page 275 blue box A&M)
    • the cervical vertabraes in the neck because the
    • can be injured with less force then it requires to fracture them
  11. 8. Identify one characteristic that helps identify the cervical
    transverse foramen, C1- no body or spinous process, C2-dens, C2-7bifid spinous process
  12. 8. Identify one characteristic that helps identify the Thoracic
    typical –Giraffe shaped

    facets on the body of each vertebra and on the transverse process
  13. 8. Identify one characteristic that helps identify the Lumbar
    • spinous processes are short broad and flat
    • bodies are massive and kidney shaped

    Moose shaped.
  14. 8. Identify one characteristic that helps identify the Sacral vert.
    • 5fused, sacral promontory, sacral foramen (post and ant),
    • median sacral crest, sacral hiatus.
  15. 8. Identify one characteristic that helps identify the Coccygeal vert.
    • remanants of the embryonic skeleton
    • varies from 1-4,
    • lack spinous processes pedicles, or laminae

    form the coccyx.
  16. 9. What vertebral level does a physician use to begin the examination of the vertebral column for deviations from the norm? (lab manual, lab, A&M)
    c7 aka cervical prominens
  17. 10. The dens is a remnant of what structure? (lab manual, lab)
    remnant of the body of the first cervical vertebrae

    the body of C1
  18. What are the characteristics of the following abnormalities of the back?
    Meningocele:
    herniation of the meninges
  19. 11. What are the characteristics of the following abnormalities of the back?

    Myelomeningocele:
    herniation of meninges and spinal cord
  20. 11. What are the characteristics of the following abnormalities of the back?

    Spina bifida:
    the laminae (embryonic neural arches) of L5 and or S1 fail to devlop normally and fuse.
  21. 12. What is a dermatome? What is its importance? (A&M pg 37-39)
    an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve. Useful in neurology for finding the site of damage to the spine.

    • my answer:
    • the unilateral area of the skin innervated by the general sensory fibers of a
    • single spinal nerve. Clinicians need to understand the dermatomal innervation of the skin so they can determine using sensory testing
  22. 13. The CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) is produced by the __________________
    choroid plexus present in the four brain ventricles (subarachnoidspace).
  23. 14. Where does the spinal cord begin and end in an adult, think vertebral height? (A&M pg 292 see image, lab manual pg 54)
    cervical region to the lumbar region –begins as a continuation of the medulla oblongatathe caudal part of the brain steam and ends at the intervertable disc between l1 and l2

    • -another answer:
    • lies in the vert canal from the cervical region to the lumbar region. Usually ends at the intervert disc b/t L1 and L2.
  24. 15. What are the membranes that surround the spinal cord? List in order from external to internal.
    • Meninges- Coverings
    • Dura matter
    • Arachnoid matter
    • Pia matter
  25. What are the functions and description of dura matter ?
    • · outer covering - "durable" dural
    • sac ends at S2 ( is a thick, durable membrane, closest to the skull.)

    • o dura mater surrounds and supports the large
    • venous channels (dural sinuses) carrying blood from the brain toward the heart.
  26. what is the function of Arachnoid matter and description of this?
    looks like a "spider web" attached to pia by trabeculae

    o Subarachnoid space - between arachnoid and pia ends at S2, contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to bathe and cushion the brain and spinal cord,

    o is the space which normally exists between the arachnoid and the pia mater, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
  27. what is the function of Pia matter?
    • outer layer of CNS, forms dentate ligaments
    • and filum terminale

    o Denticulate ligmaments-extentions of the pia which helps to suspend the spinal cord in the dural sac

    o It is the meningeal envelope which firmly adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord

    o The pia mater is pierced by blood vessels which travel to the brain and spinal cord, and its capillaries are responsible for nourishing the brain.
  28. 16. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lies in what relationship to the spinal cord? (A&M pg 293-295, lab pg 55)
    in the archnoid mater, in the subarachnoid space
  29. 17. Where would the hypodermic needle be placed in an epidural nerve block? Be specific (A&M 297-298)
    The sacral hiatus into the etradural space of the duramatter in the meninges.
  30. 19. List the function of anterior, lateral and posterior horns?
    Lateral horn: somatic motor (visceral Autonomic nervous system). Conducting visceral pain impulses- Involuntary smooth muscle in walls fo organs and blood vessles,cardiac muscle and glands.

    Posterior horn: general sensory (voluntary/reflex Somatic nervous system) touch, pain,temp, position.
  31. A collection of nerve cell bodies in the CNS is called:
    Nucleus
  32. A collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS is called:
    Ganglion
  33. 20. What is the basic function of an axon vs a dendrite? (A&M pg 30)
    Axon- carry impulses away from cell bodyDendrite- “ to “
  34. 21. Know the function/differences in the somatic nervous system vs. the autonomic nervous system. Know the differences between what parasympathetic vs. sympathetic are. (A&M see table on 36, pg 34-37, 42)
    Sympathetic (thoracolumbar): catabolic (preparing the body to “flight or fight”)

    Parasympathetic (craniosacral): anabolic (promoting normal function and conserving energy)
  35. difference between extrinsic and extrensic muscles
    and which muscles studied are these. not on note card
    • .Extrinsic: Originate outsidthe region being studied.
    • Intrinsic: Origin and insertin area being studied
  36. What is the the CNS consist of?
    Brain and spinal cord
  37. what is the PNS made of
    vast network of spinal and cranial nerves linking the body to the brain and spinal cord.
  38. what are the two subdivisions of PNS?
    • autonomic nervous system
    • somatic nervous system
  39. What does autonomic nervous system do?
    (involuntary control of internal organs, blood vessles, smooth and cardiac muscles)
  40. what two groups are under that autonomic nervous system?
    sympathetic NS and parasympathetic NS
  41. What function does somatic nervous system have?
    voluntary control of skin, bones, joints, and skeletal muscle
  42. In the pns collections of neurons are called _____________.
    Ganglia
  43. In the CNS, collections of neurons are called_________
    nuclei
  44. the posterior (dorsal) root is a _________ root
    sensory
  45. the anterior (ventral) is the _______ root
    motor
  46. Sensory receptors send information to the ____________ ______________through the spinal nerve
    spinal cord (and thus to the brain)
  47. The cell bodies for these nerve fibers ( Sensory receptors ) are located in the _______ _______ ________and enter the spinal cord through the _________ root.
    dorsal root ganglion

    dorsal/posterior root.
  48. Receptors in the skin send information to the spinal cord through the spinal nerves. The cell bodies for these nerve fibers are located in the____________. The nerve fibers enter the spinal cord through the______________.Some fibers make synapses with other neurons in the
    __________ while others continue up to the brain. Many cell bodies in the ____________ of the spinal cord send axons through the __________ to muscles to control movement.
    dorsal root ganglion

    dorsal root

    doral horn

    ventral horn

    ventral root
  49. Nerve cell bodies are located in the ___________
    gray matter
  50. Surrounding the gray matter is white matter (lighter color shading) - this is where the ______ of the spinal cord are located.
    axons
  51. The organs (the "viscera") of our body, such as the heart, stomach and intestines, are regulated by a part of the nervous system called the
    autonomic nervous system (ANS).

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