genrep.txt

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cooxcooxbananas
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genrep.txt
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2012-10-15 09:00:07
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  1. DNA is made into RNA by way of...
    Transcription
  2. RNA is made into DNA by way of...
    Reverse transcription
  3. RNA is made into proteins by way of...
    Translation
  4. DNA replication relies on the complememntary of DNA strands according to...
    The AT/GC Rule
  5. During the DNA replication process, the two complementary strands of DNA come apart and serve as... template strands (parental strands)
  6. During the DNA replication process, the two complementary strands of DNA come apart and serve as template strands (parental strands) for the synthesis of...
    Two new strands of DNA
  7. When do individual nucleotides have access to the template strands?
    After the double helix has separated
  8. For the DNA replication process to complete, a _________ is formed between the phosphate of one nucleotide and the sugar of the previous nucleotide.
    covalent bond
  9. For the DNA replication process to complete, a covalent bond is formed between the ________ of one nucleotide and the ________ of the previous nucleotide.
    • phosphate
    • sugar
  10. The two newly made strands the result from DNA replication are referred to as the...
    daughter strands
  11. The ________ are identical in both double-stranded molecules after replication.
    Base sequences
  12. the DNA synthesis of one newly made strand (the __________ strand) occurs in the direction toward the replication fork, whereas the synthesis of the other newly made strand (the _______ strand) occurs in small segments away from the replication.
    • Leading
    • Lagging
  13. DNA replication produces two copies of DNA with the same _______ as the original DNA molecule.
    Sequence
  14. The Conservative model of DNA replication description...
    Both parental strands stay together after DNA replication
  15. The Semi-Conservative model of DNA replication description...
    The double-stranded DNA contains one parental and one daughter strand following replication
  16. The Dispersive model of DNA replication description...
    Parental and daughter DNA are interspersed in both strands following replication
  17. Who tested the hypothesis that DNA replication is Semi-Conservative and when?
    Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl in 1958
  18. Six steps of the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment?
    • 1) Add an excess of 14N- containing compounds to the bacterial cells so all of the newly made DNA will go from 15N to 14N
    • 2) Incubated the cells of various lengths of time
    • 3) Lyse the cells by the addition of lysozyme and detergent
    • 4) Load a sample of the lysate onto a CsCl gradient
    • 5) Centrifuge the gradients until the DNA molecules reach their equilibrium densities.
    • 6) DNA within the gradient can now be observed under a UV light.
  19. CsCl is...
    Cesium Chloride
  20. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, E. Coli was grown in the presence of...
    15N
  21. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, A haevy isotope of nitrogen that was used was...
    15N
  22. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, a light isotope of nitrogen taht was used was...
    14N
  23. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the density of the DNA was analyzed by....
    centifugation using a CsCl gradient
  24. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the top of the testtube was ______ dense than the bottom
    less
  25. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the bottom of the testtube was ______ dense than the top
    more
  26. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the lower Cs+ concentration was located at the _______ of the test tube.
    top
  27. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the higher Cs+ concentration was located at rhe ________ of the test tube.
    bottom
  28. the _________ lies between the light and heavy sections of the testtube.
    DNA intermediate
  29. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, __N shift cells to __N
    15N to 14N
  30. two rounds of DNA replication = ___ generations.
    1.9
  31. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the result that would be consistent with the semiconservative model of DNA replication after two generations is...
    mixture of light DNA and half-heavy DNA
  32. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the result that would be consistent with the The dispersive model after two generations is..
    the heavy nitrogen would be evenly dispersed among four strands, each strand containing 1/4 heavy nitrogen and 3/4 light nitrogen
  33. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the result that would be consistent with the The conservative model after two generations is..
    two separate DNA types: a light type and a heavy type.
  34. In the Stahl and Meselon (e Coli) experiment, the conservative model was disproved because...
    all of the DNA had sedimented as a single band
  35. in bacterial replication, the origin of replication is...
    the site on the bacterial chromosome where DNA synthesis begins
  36. Each bacterial chromosome has ___ origin of replication(s)
    1
  37. in bacterial replication, synthesis of DNA proceeds ________ around the bacterial chromosome.
    biodirectionally
  38. Biodirectional means....
    "proceeds in both directions"
  39. In bacterial replication, the synthesis of DNA proceeds biodirectionally and eventually meets...
    at the opposite side of the bacterial chromosome
  40. in bacterial replication, replication ends at...
    the opposite side of the bacterial chromosome
  41. in bacterial replication, two replication forks move in opposite directions....
    outward from the origin
  42. in bacterial replication, two replication forks move _________ outward from the origin
    in opposite directions
  43. in bacterial replication, A replication fork is the site where....
    the parental DNA strands have separated and new daughter strands are being made
  44. replication forks meet each other on the opposite side of the bacterial chromosome to...
    complete the replication process.
  45. _________ meet each other on the opposite side of the bacterial chromosome to complete the replication process.
    replication forks
  46. Replication is Semi-____________.
    Discontinuous
  47. Replication is initiated by the binding of...
    DnaA protein to the origin of replication
  48. the origin of replication in E. coli is called...
    oriC
  49. oriC stands for...
    Origin of Chromosomal replication
  50. Three types of DNA sequences found within oriC are
    • an AT-rich region
    • DnaA box sequences
    • GATC methylation sites
  51. DNA replication is initiated by the binding of DnaA proteins to sequences within the origin known as....
    DnaA box sequences.
  52. ________serve as recognition sites for the binding of the DnaA proteins
    DnaA box sequences
  53. When DnaA proteins are in their ATP-bound form, they bind to...
    the five DnaA boxes in oriC to initiate DNA replication
  54. the seperation of the AT-rich region is caused by...
    THE DNA bending around the complex of DnaA proteins by the aid of DNA-binding proteins (HU and IHF)
  55. The DNA strands are more easily seperated at an AT-rich region because...
    Only two hydrogen bonds occur between Adenine and Thymine.
  56. The DNA strands are more easily seperated at...
    an AT-rich region
  57. Following separation of the AT-rich region, the _____ protein, with the help of the ______ protein, recruit __________ proteins to this site.
    • DnaA
    • DnaC
    • DNA helicase
  58. DNA helicase is also known as...
    DnaB protein.
  59. What happens when a DNA helicase encounters a double stranded region?
    it breaks the hydrogen bonds between the two strands, making two single strands.
  60. What begins strand separation within the oriC region and continue to separate the
    • DNA strands beyond the origin?
    • DNA Helicases
  61. How many DNA helicases begin strand separation within the oriC region and continue to separate the DNA strands beyond the origin?
    Two
  62. DNA helicases use the energy from ATP hydrolysis to...
    catalyze the separation of the double-stranded parental DNA
  63. DNA helicases use the energy from ___________ to catalyze the separation of the double-stranded parental DNA
    ATP hydrolysis
  64. In E. coli, DNA helicases bind to __________ DNA.
    Single-stranded
  65. In E.coli DNA helicases bind to single-stranded DNA and travel along the DNA in a __________ direction
    5' to 3'
  66. In E.coli DNA helicases bind to single-stranded DNA and travel along the DNA in a 5' to 3' direction in order to ....
    keep the replication fork moving
  67. The action of DNA helicases promotes the movement of two replication forks outward from....
    oriC in opposite directions.
  68. The action of DNA helicases promotes the movement of ___________________ outward from oriC in opposite directions.
    Two replication forks
  69. The action of DNA helicases promoting the movement of two replication forks outward from oriC in opposite directions inititates...
    the replication of the bacterial chromosome in both directions (bidirectional replication)
  70. Bidirectional replication in bacterial chromosome is when...
    the replication of the bacterial chromosome is initiated in both directions
  71. List the three steps that occur at oriC to initiate the DNA replication process.
    • 1) DnaA proteins bind to DnaA boxes and to each other. (causes the AT-rich region to wrap around the DnaA proteins and separates the AT-rich region)
    • 2) DNA helicase (DnaB protein) binds to the origin while DnaC protein assists.
    • 3) DNA helicase separates the DNA in both directions, creating 2 replication forks
  72. The function of DNA helicase is to....
    break the hydrogen bonds between base pairs and unwind the strands.
  73. The action of the DNA helicases breaking the H bonds between base pairs and unwinding the strands generates _____________ ahead of each replication fork
    positive supercoiling
  74. The action of the DNA helicases breaking the H bonds between base pairs and unwinding the strands generates positive supercoiling ahead of each...
    replication fork
  75. DnaA protein's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Binds to DnaA boxes within the origin to initiate DNA replication
  76. DnaC protein's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Aids DnaA in the recruitment of DNA helicase to the origin
  77. DNA helicase (DnaB) protein's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Seperates double-stranded DNA
  78. Topoisomerase's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Removes positive supercoiling ahead of the replication fork
  79. Single-strand binding protein's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Binds to single-stranded DNA and prevents it from re-forming a double-stranded structure.
  80. Primase's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    synthesizes short RNA primers
  81. DNA Polymerase III's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Synthesizes DNA in the leading and lagging strands
  82. DNA Polymerase I's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Removes RNA primers, fills in gaps with DNA
  83. DNA ligase's function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Covalently attaches adjacent Okazaki fragments
  84. Tus' function in E. coli DNA replication is..
    Binds to ter sequences and prevents the advancemnet of the replication fork
  85. Topoisomerase (Type II) is also called...
    DNA gyrase
  86. the bases within the parental strands are kept in an exposed condition that enables them to hydrogen bond with individual nucleotides because of the function of ...
    single-strand binding proteins
  87. _______ synthesizes short strands of RNA, typically 10 to 12 nucleotides in
    • length.
    • Primase
  88. Primase synthesizes short strands of RNA, typically _____________ in length
    10 to 12 nucleotides
  89. In the _________ strand, a single primer is made at the origin of replication.
    leading
  90. In the _________ strand, multiple primers are made.
    lagging
  91. What enzyme catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds between adjacent nucleotides and thereby makes the new daughter strands?
    DNA polymerase
  92. In E. coli, _____ distinct proteins function as DNA polymerases.
    five
  93. DNA polymerases ___ and ____ are involved in normal DNA replication
    I and III
  94. DNA polymerases ___, ___, and ____ play a role in DNA repair and the replication of damaged DNA.
    II, IV and V
  95. DNA polymerase ____ is responsible for most of the DNA replication.
    III
  96. Primers are... (RNA or DNA)?
    RNA
  97. In the semi-discontinous replication, the sucrose gradient at the ______ is smaller.
    Top
  98. In the semi-discontinous replication, the sucrose gradient at the ______ is larger.
    Bottom
  99. In the semi-discontinous replication, _________ fragments are seen in sucrose density gradients.
    3H labeled
  100. In the semi-discontinous replication, 3H labeled fragments are seen in __________ gradients.
    Sucrose density
  101. You identify proteins and enzymes involved in Replication by combining _________ and ________.
    Genetics and Biochemistry
  102. The genetic approach to identifying proteins and enzymes involved in replication is...
    Obtain mutants that are defective in Replication
  103. The three step method to identifying proteins and enzymes involved in replication is..
    • 1) Mutagenize cells
    • 2) Plate the cells on agar and grow at 30oC
    • 3) Replica plate and grow 37oC

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