Professional moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior
A person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to do
Are values the same as ethics?
Ethics are the study of what is right and wrong and how people conclude what is right and what is wrong.
Name the sources of values:
1- Verbal inculcation
2- Behaviors we see
Name the kinds of values:
Name Rath's sub-processing of valuing.
A- Prizing one's belief and behaviors
1-Prize and cherish
2- Publicaly affirming (when appropriate)
B- Choosing one's beliefs and behaviors
3- Choosing form alternatives
4- Choosing after considering consequences
5- Choosing freely
C- Acting on one's beliefs
7- Acting with a pattern, consistency, and repetition
Define instrumental value.
Instrumental value (or extrinsic value, contributory value) is the value ofobjects, both physical objects and abstract objects, not as ends-in-themselves, but a means of achieving something else
Define terminal value.
Intrinsic value is an ethical and philosophic property. It is the ethical orphilosophic value that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", as anintrinsic property. An object with intrinsic value may be regarded as an end or end-in-itself
List the values of government.
Follow the will of the people
Define Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning.
1- At birth, all humans are void of morals, ethics, and honesty.
2- Family is the first source of values and moral development for an individual.
3- As one's intelligence and ability to interact with others matures, so does one's patterns of moral behavior
On who's research is Kohlberg's theory of moral developmet based on?
List the three levels of Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Define the precoventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Judgement is based solely on a person's own needs and perceptions.
List the stages in the preconventional level within Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
1- Punichment-obedience orientation
2- Personal reward orientation.
Define the punishment-obedience orientation stage.
Obey rules to avoid punishment, a good or bad action is determined by its physical consequences
Define the personal reward orientation stage.
Personal needs determine right of wrong.
Define the conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
The expectations of society and society's laws are taken into account in a decision about a moral dilemma.
List the stages of the conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
1- Good boy-nice girl orientation.
2- Law and order orientation.
Define the good boy-nice girl orientation stage
Good means "nice". One's behavior is determined by what pleases and is approved by others.
Define the law and order oreintation stage.
(authority and social order obedience driven), it is important to obey laws, dictums and social conventions because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society
Define the postconventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Judgments are based on abstract, more personal principles that aren't necessarily defined by society's laws
List the stages in the postconvetional level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
1- Social contract orientation
2- universal ethical principle orientation
Define the social contract orientation stage.
Good is determined by socially agreed upon standard of individual rights