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What is a value?
- 1- Your belief
- 2- What is important to you
- 3- Something you hold dear
Professional moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior
A person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to do
Are values the same as ethics?
- Ethics are the study of what is right and wrong and how people conclude what is right and what is wrong.
Name the sources of values:
- 1- Verbal inculcation
- 2- Behaviors we see
Name the kinds of values:
- 1- Instrumental
- 2- Terminal
Name Rath's sub-processing of valuing.
- A- Prizing one's belief and behaviors
- 1-Prize and cherish
- 2- Publicaly affirming (when appropriate)
- B- Choosing one's beliefs and behaviors
- 3- Choosing form alternatives
- 4- Choosing after considering consequences
- 5- Choosing freely
- C- Acting on one's beliefs
- 6- Acting
- 7- Acting with a pattern, consistency, and repetition
Define instrumental value.
Instrumental value (or extrinsic value, contributory value) is the value ofobjects, both physical objects and abstract objects, not as ends-in-themselves, but a means of achieving something else
Define terminal value.
Intrinsic value is an ethical and philosophic property. It is the ethical orphilosophic value that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", as anintrinsic property. An object with intrinsic value may be regarded as an end or end-in-itself
List the values of government.
- Follow the will of the people
Define Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning.
- 1- At birth, all humans are void of morals, ethics, and honesty.
- 2- Family is the first source of values and moral development for an individual.
- 3- As one's intelligence and ability to interact with others matures, so does one's patterns of moral behavior
On who's research is Kohlberg's theory of moral developmet based on?
List the three levels of Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
- 1- Preconventional
- 2- Conventional
- 3- Postconventional
Define the precoventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Judgement is based solely on a person's own needs and perceptions.
List the stages in the preconventional level within Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
- 1- Punichment-obedience orientation
- 2- Personal reward orientation.
Define the punishment-obedience orientation stage.
Obey rules to avoid punishment, a good or bad action is determined by its physical consequences
Define the personal reward orientation stage.
Personal needs determine right of wrong.
Define the conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
The expectations of society and society's laws are taken into account in a decision about a moral dilemma.
List the stages of the conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
- 1- Good boy-nice girl orientation.
- 2- Law and order orientation.
Define the good boy-nice girl orientation stage
Good means "nice". One's behavior is determined by what pleases and is approved by others.
Define the law and order oreintation stage.
(authority and social order obedience driven), it is important to obey laws, dictums and social conventions because of their importance in maintaining a functioning society
Define the postconventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Judgments are based on abstract, more personal principles that aren't necessarily defined by society's laws
List the stages in the postconvetional level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
- 1- Social contract orientation
- 2- universal ethical principle orientation
Define the social contract orientation stage.
Good is determined by socially agreed upon standard of individual rights
Define universal ethical principle orientation stage.
What is "good" and "right" are matters of individual conscience and involve abstract concepts of justice human dignity, and equality
List the criticisms of Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
- 1- Morality may not be linear and occur in discreet stages
- 2- Reasoning may not equal behavior
- 3- Gender biased against women
- 4- Based on Piaget's research (based on Piaget's own children)
Define David Hume's theory for moral development.
- 1- Moral values are a matter of social convention
- 2- All actions are motivated by character traits
- 3- You can only know what you experience
List the persons involved in David Hume's theory of moral development.
- 1- Agent
- 2- Receiver
- 3- Spectator
performing the act
affected by the act
observer of the agent's action (who decides if it is good or bad)
List the types of virtues in David Hume's theory of moral deveopment.
Give examples of natural virtues.
Give examples of artificail virtues
- keeping promises
What virtues keep a well ordered state, according to David Hume's theory of moral development?
Define Jonathan Haidt's moral foundations theory
Consists of five fundamental moral values shared to a greater of lesser degree by different societies and individuals
List the five fundamental moral values in Jonathan Haidt's moral foundations theory.
- 1- Harm
- 2- Fairness
- 3- Community
- 4- Authority
- 5- Purity
Define harm in relation to Jonathan Haidt's moral foundations theory.
The protection from harm (care)
Define fairness in relation to Jonathan Haidt's moral foundations theory.
Treating others equally (justice)
Define community in relation to Jonathan Haidt's moral foundations theory.
Sense of loyalty to your group, family, nation (ingroup)
Define authority in relation to Jonathan Haidt's moral foundations theory.
Respect for tradition and legitimate authority.
Define purity in relation to Jonathan Haidt's moral foundations theory.
avoiding disgusting things, food, and actions.
List the NASW Code of Ethics core values.
- 1- Service
- 2- Social justice
- 3- Dignity and worth of the person
- 4- Importance of human relationships
- 5- Integrity
- 6- Competence
What are the six purposes of the NASW Code of Ethics?
- 1- Indetifies core values.
- 2- summarizes broad ethical principles and establishes ethical standards.
- 3- Helps social workers identify relevant considerations
- 4- Provides ethical standards to which social workers can be held accountable.
- 5- socializes practitioners.
- 6- Articulates standards to assess whether social workers have engaged in unethical conduct.
What is the ethical principle of service?
Socail worker's primary goal is to help people in need and to address scial problems.
What is the ethical principle of social justice?
Social workers challenge social injustice.
What is the ethical principle of dignity and worth of the person?
Social workers respect the inherent dignity and worth of the person.
What is the ethical principle of importance of human relationships?
Social workers recognize the central importance of human relationships.
What is the ethical principle of integrity?
Social workers behave in a trustworthy manner.
What is the ethical principle of competence?
Social workers practive within their areas of competence and develop and enhance their professiona expertise.
What are the six ethical standards for social workers?
- 1- Reponsibilities to clients
- 2- Reponsibilities to colleagues
- 3- Reponsibilities in practice settings
- 4- Reponsibilities as professionals
- 5- Reponsibilities tot he social work profession
- 6- Reponsibilities to the broader society.