Head & Neck

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Head & Neck
2012-10-15 17:11:09
Glands Nervous System

Chapter 7 & 8
Show Answers:

  1. What do Glands produce?
    They produce chemical secretions needed for normal body functioning.
  2. What are the two types of Glands and what do they mean?
    • Endocrine – ductless, secretions pour directly into vascular system 
    • Exocrine – has a duct associated it with it. Secretions empty into various locations
  3. Lacrimal Gland
    • Produces watery fluid that lubricates the eye.
    • Location – superiorly and laterally in orbit.
    • Fluid flows inferiorly, and medially, enters tiny opening in medial canthus. Nasolacrimal duct drains into superior portion of nasal cavity.
  4. What are the 3 major salivary glands?
    • Parotid 
    • Submandibular 
    • Sublingual
  5. Name the minor salivary glands
    • Buccal, labial, lingual, soft palate, hard palate, floor of mouth 
    • Von Ebner’s glands – associated with the circumvallate papilla of tongue
  6. Parotid Gland
    • Largest 
    • Produces only 25 % of salivary volume. Serous secretion (watery)
    • Duct – called Stensen’s duct
    • Nerve innervation – IX; Glossopharnygeal. Facial nerve goes through the gland
    • Blood supply – branches from external carotid artery. 
    • Lymph drainage – deep parotid lymph nodes
  7. Name some reasons the Parotid Gland would swell.
    • Mumps - Viral infection of parotid gland. Swelling; facial pain. Vaccination - MMR 
    • Salivary gland tumor 
    • Blockage of Stensen’s Duct
  8. Submandibular Gland
    • Second largest salivary gland 
    • Produces 60-65 % of the salivary volume 
    • Mixed salivary gland – both serous and mucous 
    • Duct – Wharton’s Duct; opens at the sublingual caruncle under tongue 
    • Nerve innervation – Efferent (parasympathetic ) fibers of chorda tympani (branch of facial nerve) and from submandibular ganglion of facial nerve. 
    • Blood Supply – Branches from facial and lingual arteries
  9. Sublingual Gland
    • Smallest of major salivary glands 
    • Produces 10 % of salivary volume 
    • Mixed secretions, but mostly mucous
    • Nerve innervation – Same as submandibular 
    • Blood Supply – Sublingual and submental arteries (small branches from lingual and mental arteries respectively) 
  10. When ducts of minor salivary glands are injured and become blocked is called, what?
  11. What is Ranula?
    Injury to major salivary glands causing blockage
  12. Thyroid Gland
    • Largest endocrine gland 
    • Secretes thyroxine – hormone that stimulates metabolic rate
    • Enlargement – Goiter 
  13. Parathyroid Glands
    • Four small endocrine glands 
    • Produce parathyroid hormone – regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in blood
  14. Thymus Gland
    • Part of immune system; T-cell lymphocytes mature in this gland. 
    • Grows in size until puberty; then begins to shrink. 
  15. Define Neuron
    Cell body, dendrite, and axon
  16. Define Nerve
    Bundle of neural processes outside the CNS, and in the Peripheral Nervous system 
  17. Define Ganglion
    Collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
  18. What is an Afferent nerve?
    Sensory nerve → CNS Analyzes 
  19. What is an Efferent nerve?
    Motor nerve → Periphery, muscles effects 
  20. Resting potential 
    Difference between the positive charge outside the nerve membrane and the negative charge inside nerve membrane; measured in millivolts. Resting potential is  - 70 mV (negative 70 mV) 
  21. Action Potential
    • Outside of nerve membrane is high in Na+ 
    • Inside of nerve membrane is high in K+ 
    • Nerve stimulated, gates open, Na+ rushes in. 
    • Depolarization occurs; i.e., becomes less negative by + charges rushing in 
    • So, nerves goes from   - 70 mV → + 40 mV 
    • Current begins to flow from the depolarized area to the adjacent resting area of   -70 mV. 
    • Flow begins down nerve – Action potential or impulse propagation
  22. Synapse
    Junction between two neurons, or between a neuron and an effector organ 
  23. CNS = ?
    Brain + Spinal Cord
  24. Cerebrum
    Two cerebral hemispheres. Coordinates sensory data and motor functions, intelligence, reasoning, learning and memory 
  25. Cerebellum
    muscle coordination, muscle tone and posture and balance 
  26. What are the parts of the Brainstem?
    Medulla, pons, and midbrain
  27. Medulla
    Regulation of heartbeat, breathing, vasoconstriction (blood pressure), reflex centers (vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing and hiccupping) 
  28. Pons
    Connects medulla with cerebellum; *** cranial nerves V and VII cell bodies are found here 
  29. Midbrain
    relay stations for hearing, vision, and motor pathways
  30. Diencephalon
    Thalamus and hypothalamus 
  31. Thalamus
    Central relay point for incoming nerve impulses 
  32. Hypothalamus
    Homeostasis: thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance, blood pressure, links nervous system to endocrine glands 
  33. The Peripheral Nervous System divides into what two systems?
    • Afferent Nervous System (Sensory)
    • Efferent Nervous System (Motor)
  34. What are the two branches of the Efferent Nervous System?
    • Somatic Nervous System-All nerves controlling the muscular system and external sensory receptors. External sense organs are receptors, but the muscle fibers and glands associated with them are affected by this system. 
    • Autonomic Nervous System- Operates without conscious control
  35. Name the 2 divisions of Autonomic Nervous System.
    • Sympathetic Nervous System “Fight or flight responses” In general, speeds things up; heart rate, blood pressure, dilation of eyes; One exception is salivary gland production; *DECREASES
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System "Rest and digest" In general, slows things down; One exception is salivary gland production; * INCREASES
  36. Spinal nerves from the spinal column (Numbers and Locations)
    • 8- Cervical 
    • 12 -Thoracic 
    • 5- Lumbar 
    • 5- Sacral 
    • 1 -Coccygeal
  37. Cranial Nerve I
    Olfactory -Sensory only; smell; nerves enters skull through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Olfactory bulbs → olfactory tracts → brain
  38. Cranial Nerve II
    Optic -Sensory only; sight; retina → optic nerve → optic chiasma → optic tracts → brain 
  39. Cranial Nerve III
    Occulomotor -Motor Only; muscles of the eye
  40. Cranial Nerve IV
    Trochlear -Motor only; muscle of the eye 
  41. Cranial Nerve V
    • Trigeminal -A mixed nerve – both motor and sensory 
    • Three Divisions: V1 – Ophthalmic Nerve (Division) – Sensory Only; exits skull through the superior orbital fissure 
    • V2 – Maxillary Nerve (Division) – Sensory only; exits skull through foramen rotundum 
    • V3 – Mandibular Nerve (Division) – Mixed; motor and sensory; exits skull through foramen ovale
  42. Cranial Nerve VI
    Abducens -Motor Only; muscle of the eye
  43. Cranial Nerve VII
  44. Cranial Nerve VIII
    Auditory/Vestibulocochlear -Sensory only; hearing and balance 
  45. Cranial Nerve IX
    Glossopharyngeal – Mixed (both); motor – stylpharyngeus muscle and parotid gland; sensory – skin around ear and tongue (taste and general sensation)
  46. Cranial Nerve X
    Vagus – Mixed (both); motor – muscles of soft palate, pharynx,  larynx and thorax and absominal organs; Sensory – skin around ear and epiglottis (taste)
  47. Cranial Nerve XI
    Accessory – Motor only; two muscles in neck, sternocleidomastoid and trapezius, soft palate, pharynx 
  48. Cranial Nerve XII
    Hypoglossal – Motor only; tongue muscles