Duct – Wharton’s Duct; opens at the sublingual caruncle under tongue
Nerve innervation – Efferent (parasympathetic ) fibers of chorda tympani (branch of facial nerve) and from submandibular ganglion of facial nerve.
Blood Supply – Branches from facial and lingual arteries
Smallest of major salivary glands
Produces 10 % of salivary volume
Mixed secretions, but mostly mucous
Nerve innervation – Same as submandibular
Blood Supply – Sublingual and submental arteries (small branches from lingual and mental arteries respectively)
When ducts of minor salivary glands are injured and become blocked is called, what?
What is Ranula?
Injury to major salivary glands causing blockage
Largest endocrine gland
Secretes thyroxine – hormone that stimulates metabolic rate
Enlargement – Goiter
Four small endocrine glands
Produce parathyroid hormone – regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in blood
Part of immune system; T-cell lymphocytes mature in this gland.
Grows in size until puberty; then begins to shrink.
Cell body, dendrite, and axon
Bundle of neural processes outside the CNS, and in the Peripheral Nervous system
Collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS
What is an Afferent nerve?
Sensory nerve → CNS Analyzes
What is an Efferent nerve?
Motor nerve → Periphery, muscles effects
Difference between the positive charge outside the nerve membrane and the negative charge inside nerve membrane; measured in millivolts. Resting potential is - 70 mV (negative 70 mV)
Outside of nerve membrane is high in Na+
Inside of nerve membrane is high in K+
Nerve stimulated, gates open, Na+ rushes in.
Depolarization occurs; i.e., becomes less negative by + charges rushing in
So, nerves goes from - 70 mV → + 40 mV
Current begins to flow from the depolarized area to the adjacent resting area of -70 mV.
Flow begins down nerve – Action potential or impulse propagation
Junction between two neurons, or between a neuron and an effector organ
CNS = ?
Brain + Spinal Cord
Two cerebral hemispheres. Coordinates sensory data and motor functions, intelligence, reasoning, learning and memory
muscle coordination, muscle tone and posture and balance
What are the parts of the Brainstem?
Medulla, pons, and midbrain
Regulation of heartbeat, breathing, vasoconstriction (blood pressure), reflex centers (vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing and hiccupping)
Connects medulla with cerebellum; *** cranial nerves V and VII cell bodies are found here
relay stations for hearing, vision, and motor pathways
Thalamus and hypothalamus
Central relay point for incoming nerve impulses
Homeostasis: thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance, blood pressure, links nervous system to endocrine glands
The Peripheral Nervous System divides into what two systems?
Afferent Nervous System (Sensory)
Efferent Nervous System (Motor)
What are the two branches of the Efferent Nervous System?
Somatic Nervous System-All nerves controlling the muscular system and external sensory receptors. External sense organs are receptors, but the muscle fibers and glands associated with them are affected by this system.
Autonomic Nervous System- Operates without conscious control
Name the 2 divisions of Autonomic Nervous System.
Sympathetic Nervous System “Fight or flight responses” In general, speeds things up; heart rate, blood pressure, dilation of eyes; One exception is salivary gland production; *DECREASES
Parasympathetic NervousSystem "Rest and digest" In general, slows things down; One exception is salivary gland production; * INCREASES
Spinal nerves from the spinal column (Numbers and Locations)
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory-Sensory only; smell; nerves enters skull through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone. Olfactory bulbs → olfactory tracts → brain