Honors Bio ch7

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Honors Bio ch7
2012-10-15 17:31:33
Biology chapter definitions

Honors Bio ch7 vocab
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  1. Cellular Respiration
    The process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates; atmospheric oxygen combines with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide.
  2. Pyruvic Acid
    The three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis.
  3. NADH
    The reduced form of NAD+; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration.
  4. Anaerobic 
    Describes a process that does not require oxygen.
  5. Aerobic Respiration
    The process in which pyruvic acid is broken down and NADH is used to make a large amount of ATP; the part of respiration that is carried out in the presence of oxygen.
  6. Glycolysis
    The anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP.
  7. NAD+
    Abbreviation for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme involved in redox reactions.
  8. Fermentation
    The breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen.
  9. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    The chemical breakdown of carbohydrates that produces lactic acid as the main end product.
  10. Alcoholic Fermentation
    The anaerobic process by which yeasts and other microorganisms break down sugars to form carbon dioxide and ethanol.
  11. Kilocalorie
    A unit of energy equal to 1,000 cal.
  12. Mitochondrial Matrix
    The fluid that is inside the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
  13. Acetyl-CoA
    Acetyl coenzyme A, a compound that is synthesized by cells and that plays a major role in metabolism.
  14. Krebs Cycle
    A series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water; it is the major pathway of oxidation in animal, bacterial, and plant cells, and it releases energy.
  15. Oxaloacetic Acid
    A four-carbon compound of Kreb's cycle that combines with acetyl CoA to form citric acid.
  16. Citric Acid
    A six-carbon compound formed in the Krebs cycle.
  17. FAD
    Flavin adenine dinucleotide, a compound that acts as a hydrogen acceptor in dehydrogenation reactions.