Chapter #10; Glossary Terms

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facea1998
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177851
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Chapter #10; Glossary Terms
Updated:
2013-01-30 17:58:49
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science
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Glossary Terms
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  1. Electricity
    Electricity is a form of energy caused by the interactions of charged particles, such as protons and electrons.  
  2. Static charge (static electricity)
    An electric charge that tends to stay on the surface of an object, rather than flowing away quickly. 
  3. Charging by friction
    Static builds up as different materiasl rub together, this is charging by friction. When objects become charged by friction one material has a stronger attraction to electrons than the other. 
  4. Electrostatic series
    • A list of materials that have been arranged according to their ability to hold onto electrons. It is based on data from
    • expirements. 

  5. Insulator
    A material in which electrons cannot move easily fromone atom to the next.

    Examples: Glass, plastic, wood, and rubber.
  6. Conductor
    Materials in which electrons can move easily from atom to atom.

    Examples: Copper, aluminum, and silver. {metals}
  7. Semiconductor
    Non-meatls in which electrons can move fairl well, for example silicon. 
  8. Ground
    Ground is a very large number of charges. It can supply electrons to a positivley charged object, or it can remove electrons from a negatively charged object. The object the becomes neutral. 
  9. Electroscope
    • A device for detecting the presence of an electric charge. For example metal leaf electroscope and pith ball; shown below. 
  10. Charging by contact
    • Generating a charge on aneatral object by touching it with a charged object. An object that becomes charged by contact always gets the same type of charge that is on the object that charges it. 
  11. Laws of electric charges
    • Laws that describe how two objects interact electrically. 
  12. Electric field
    A property of the space around a charged object, where the effect of its charge can be felt by other objects. And electric field produces an electric force on any other objects that are within the field.
  13. Induced charge separation
    The momvent of electrons in a substance, caused by the electric field of a nearby object, without direct contact between the substance and the object. 
  14. Ion
    An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
  15. Lightning rod
    Lightning rods are metal spheres or points attached to the highest part of a building. The rod is connected to the ground by a thick insulated copper. The copper connects to a metal plate or bare cable metal in the ground, giving the lightning a safe path to conduct into the ground.

  16. Electrostatic precipitator
    An electrostatic precipitator is a type of cleaner that removes unwanted particales and liquid droplets from a flow of gas.

  17. Van de Graaff generator
    • Van de Graaff generator's have been used as atom smashers since the 1930s. The can accelerate particles to very high speeds, which can sometimes create new subtatonic particles.

  18. Radiation dosimeter
    A radiation dosimeter detects and measures exposure to radiation. People who work with radioactive materials or equipment that produces radiation often need to wear a radiation dosimeter. Some dosimeters work like electroscopes.

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