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Definition of communication
the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another.
Identification of the elements of the communication process
- a. Sender
- b. Receiver
- c. Message
- d. Feedback
- e. Environment
Description of the modes of communication
- - continuous, and it communicates emotional states, interpersonal attitudes, and ourself-concept.
- - Body language
- - Touching
- - Eye contact and facial expressions
- - Smiling
- - psychological space
Description of the types of human communication
- Intrapersonal: conversation you have with yourself
- Dreaming in your sleep
- Talking to oneself either internally or out loud
- Reading aloud
- Repeating what one hears
- Interpersonal communication is between two or more people.
- By telephone
- Through written correspondence (e.g., emails or letters)
Explanation of barriers to communication
Filters which can block or muffle the message.
What makes communication complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers we put in the way. Communication barriers can be thought of as filters. The message leaves the sender, goes through a filter, and then is heard by the receiver. The filter can block or muffle the message.
Barriers to communication
Physical Barriers: Environmental, Noise, Objects, Distance, Temperature, Physical Health
Perceptual Factors: Past experience, hidden agendas, stereotypes
Emotional barriers: Anger, Fear, Surprise
Cultural and Language Barriers
Describe receiver/sender-oriented messages
- It is the responsibility of the sender to send a receiver-oriented message and providemessages that the receivers will:
- - Attend to: Relating the message to the receiver’s personal goals or providing avivid or surprising message element that attracts the attention of the receiver toyour message.
- Understand: Adapting messages to the learning level of the receiver, providingopportunities for feedback, and adding value to the message content ensures thatthe message will be easy for the receiver to comprehend
- Remember: Encouraging others to repeat the message, relating the message tothe receiver, and providing a simple summary of the message increases thelikelihood that the message will be remembered
A sender-oriented message may not be understood by the receiver.
- The receiver should
- - indicate understanding if the message is understood or ask for clarification if not.
- - provide feedback
Importance of non-verbal communication
- Where verbal and nonverbal messages conflict, nonverbal messages are relied upon more.
- Nonverbal messages can have different meanings for different people.
- Nonverbal messages cannot be avoided – even if we do nothing, we communicate.
State the steps of the listening process
Receiving - hearing
Attending - giving attention to what was heard
Understanding - learning what the speaker means
Responding - a form of feedback that completes the communication process and letsthe sender know that the message was received, attended to, and understood
Remembering – being able to recall or retain for later use
Identify types of listening
Active - a process in which the listener makes a conscious effort to listen for the complete message; this is good listening
Inactive - hearing only the words
Selective Listening – filtering the message, hearing only what you want to hear
Difference between hearing and listening
Hearing is a physiological process that occurs when you are in the vicinity ofvibrations in the air and these vibrations impinge on your eardrum.
Listening involves a five-step process that does something with what was heard.
Benefits of effective listening
Improves communications - When effective listening is occurring, it makes you a more involved part of the communication process.
Puts you in control of the situation - When doing interviews, focus groups, etc, you can gain more control of the process by being more aware of what is being said.
Minimizes conflict - Many conflicts occur because of a breakdown in communication.
Shows that you care - People are more willing to share when they believe that the listener cares about what is being said.
Enhances understanding - Effective listening requires that you seek clarity, which cuts down on confusion
Improves memory - The more focused you are during listening, the better you will retain the information.
Methods to improve listening
Have a reason or purpose for listening
Resist distractions (overcoming deterrents)
Wait before responding
Seek important themes
Respond to comments
- Avoid response blocks:
- - Evaluation
- - Unsolicited advice giving
- - Diagnosing/analyzing
- - Topping
Definition of feedback
a. Communication to a person or group providing information as to how their behavior is affecting or influencing you (giving feedback).
b. A reaction by others as to how your behavior is affecting or influencing them (receiving feedback).
Difference between evaluative/non-evaluative feedback
- a. Evaluative feedback:
- (1) Occurs when an individual assumes that he/she can distinguish between right andwrong, or good and bad.
- (2) Involves judging another against your standards or values.
b. Non-evaluative feedback occurs when addressing an observable behavior.
guidelines for giving feedback. Ensure feedback (is)
describes (non-evaluative) rather than judges (evaluative).
specific rather than general
takes into account the needs of both the receiver and the giver (sender) of the feedback.
analyzed to guarantee clear communication
solicited rather than imposed.
directed at a person’s behavior, not at the person
- directed at behavior the receiver can control
- - Feedback should focus on sharing information, not giving advice
JoHari window panes
Open arena: Things I know about myself and others know
Blind spot: Things I don’t know about myself but the group knows
Façade: Things I know about myself, but the group doesn’t know
Unknown: Things that neither the group nor I know about myself
Identify behaviors/actions that cause the panes to move/change size
- - Feedback solicitation
- - Self discovery
- - self-disclosure/exposure
- - others' observation
Benefits of feedback
a. Exchange information.
b. Achieve personal growth.
c. Provider finds out about self.
d. Receiver gains insight.
e. Creates an open environment for effective operational and interpersonalcommunications.
f. Aids in preparation for the future; not dwelling on the past.
Definition of diversity (overall theme/concept)
Definition of inclusion
action which recognizes and integrates the attributes of the workforce in order to successfully accomplish missions.
Differentiate between the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity and identify why diversity is critical to readiness
primary dimensions: properties and characteristics that constitute the core of our diverseidentities
secondary dimensions: additional elements outside the core, some being quite permanent and others receding or changing over time; less visible to others, more changeable, and morevariable in the degree or influence they exert on one’s life.
Changing U.S. demographics- Current combat missions and terrorism operate among diverse cultures- Increased need for specialized talent- Increased use of collaborative work structures.increased effectiveness, innovation, improved problem solving, greatercohesion, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, competitiveness, and enhancedmission readiness.useful during conflict resolutionsyou can determine if your organizationfosters a climate conducive to support diversity
Identify how the dimensions of diversity exert an impact on the socialization process
shaping our values, perceptions, priorities, and experiences; form an individual’s self-image; filters through which he or sheviews the rest of the world
influences our self-image, values, opportunities, and expectations
give meaning to our lives by contributing to a synergistic, integrated whole
exert a powerful influence throughout our lifetime
help shape our values, attitudes, and perceptions – the socialization of our culture and ourselves
Primary dimensions of diversity
Mental/physical abilities and characteristics
Factors of personal diversity development
Identify individual diversity awareness strategies
Be aware of your own cultural influences and assumptions when communicating withpeople of other cultures
Do not buy into generalizations, as the behavior and beliefs of people within eachculture can vary considerably, and not all people identify with their cultural orreligious background
Be wary of judging others’ behaviors and beliefs according to the standards of yourown culture
Monitor your verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors
Identify behaviors that enhance or detract from work group readiness
Define conflict and the causes of conflict.
A disagreement between or among individuals, a fight, a battle, a difference of opinion oridea, a misunderstanding.
- primary causes
- - wants or needs differ
- - values differ
- - Differing degrees of knowledge expectations
- - Differences in race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and age
- - Assumptions/perceptions
What are two things that conflict can be
Constructive or Destructive
Characteristics of intergroup conflict
Takes place between two or more groups
Available resources are perceived as inadequate for all
Each group tries to overpower the other
Each group has mutually exclusive goals or values
Perceptions are inaccurate or illogical
Negotiation skills and their uses
Diagnosis: The ability to determine the nature of conflict
Initiation: Influencing someone to change a behavior that may be causing the problem
Listening: Ability to hear the other’s point of view, listen, reflect, paraphrase, and clarify (very important)
Elements of the conflict model
Outcomes of conflict (eg. win/win)
lose/lose (Avoidance): withdrawal/denial of problem
lose/win (Accommodating): surface harmony
win/lose (Competing): authority, majority rule or persuasive minority settles conflict
draw (Compromising): each party gives something to meet midway
win/win (Collaboration): abilities, values, and expertise of all are recognized; each person's position is clear; emphasis is on the group solution
List components of personal and group conflict.
State strategies used to cope with conflict
- - How important is the relationship?
- - How important is the incident?
- - How will I feel if I do/don’t confront it?
- - What is the likely outcome?
- - Diagnosis: The ability to determine the nature of conflict
- Initiation: Influencing someone to change a behavior that may be causing the problem
- Listening: Ability to hear the other’s point of view, listen, reflect, paraphrase, and clarify (very important)
Identify components of problem solving process
Step 1. Assess (Problem)
Step 2. Plan (solution)
Step 3. Implement (solution)
Step 4. Evaluate (outcome)
Identify the benefits of coping with conflict
- Deals with reality.
- Confronts the real problem.
- Keeps identity and role separate.
Intent vs Impact
When we do or say something, there is always an impact
we assume the behavior has the intended consequence
When the impact communication is negative - for example, someone was hurt oroffended by our action - we may respond to that person based on our intention
Definition of cross-cultural communication
a process of exchanging, negotiating, and mediating one's cultural differences through language, non-verbal gestures, and space relationships. It is also the process by which people express their openness to a cross-cultural experience.
based on perspectives, practices and products
distinguishes between stereotypes and generalizations when assessing individuals of different cultures.
stereotypes assume; ending point
generalizations wonder; starting point to learn more
Definition of cross-gender communication
Gender includes the social construction of masculinity and femininity within a cultureand incorporates a person’s biological, psychological, and sociological characteristics.
Sex refers to a person's biological or physical self. Although sex determines who will bear children, gender accounts for our roles in life and how these life roles affect our communication.
Generational communication styles
- FOUR Generational Types:
- 1. Traditionalists (born 1922-1943)
- – Administrative, policy-oriented, letter of the law. Masters of theexpert opinion, think tanks.
- 2. Baby Boomers (born 1943-1960)
- – Megaphone. Brilliant message crafters. Good creators of content that aligns purpose and values with appeal to higher purpose and meaning. Masters of radio and TV delivery.
- 3. Generation X (born 1960-1980)
- – Independent. Not connected to an organization; focused on micro-subjects and personal expression of style work. Masters of the internet, blogging, and publishing resources.
- 4. Millenials (born 1980-2000)
- – Upbeat, rally together, focused on the activity and approval of theirpeers. Masters of mobile and hand-held devices
Skills to improve communicating across differences
Listening: Attentive listening is critical to be able to understand meanings, read between the lines, and empathize with the speaker.
Speaking: Positive speech such as encouragement, affirmation, recognition, phrasing requests clearly, or expressing opinions sensitively will improve communication. Also, avoiding negative or stereotypical comments and innuendos based on gender, race, age, etc. is critical to communication success.
Observation: Note people’s dress, body language, interaction, and behavior. Be aware of differences within your own culture and try to understand the roots ofbehaviors. Asking appropriate and thoughtful questions expands your cross difference knowledge.
Patience: Through patience, respect is won and cross-difference understanding isenhanced.
Flexibility: Adaptability and open-mindedness are the route to successful communication. Understanding and addressing differences leads to the breaking of barriers, which results in better lines of communication, mutual trust, and creative thinking.
Explain communicating across differences
communicate properly with people of different ethnicities, backgrounds, cultures, ages, and races
can be unpredictable, difficultto study, and different for each of us