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2012-10-15 23:38:13
Introducation Management

Management - Ch5-8
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  1. Social Obligation
    Obligation to meet the economic and legal responsibilities and nothing more
  2. Social Responsiveness
    When a firm engages in social actions in respons to a popular social need

    -Jumping on the bandwagon of a popular social movement
  3. Social Responsibility
    A business's entention, beyond its legal and economic obligations, to do the right things and act in ways that are good for society

    -Simply because they believe it is the right thing to do
  4. Classical View
    The view that management's only social responsibility is to maximize profits by operating business in the best interests of the stocholders (owners of corporation)

    -Going above and beyond is an unneccessary cost
  5. Socioeconomic View
    Management's social responsibility goes beyond making profits to include protecting and improving society's welfare

    -Strive to do the right thing
  6. Social Screening
    Company does not invest in areas that they believe are distructive to society

    -Ex - Not investing in gambling, high pollutants, illegal activity, etc
  7. Green Management
    Considering the impact the organization has on the natural environment
  8. Ethics
    Priciples, values, and beliefs that define right and wrong behavior

    -Consider how your choice affects others
  9. Values
    Basic convictions about what is right and wrong
  10. Ego Strength
    A personality meausre of the strength of a person's convictions.

    -Is their ego strength high enough to not participate in dangerous risks that could greatly affect others
  11. Locus of Control
    A personality attribute that measure the degree to which people believe they control their own fate

    -Personal reasons explaining ethical behavior

    -Was it your fault or do you blame it on traffic, or other elements beyond your control
  12. Values-Based Management
    An approach to managing in which mangers establish and uphold and organization's shared values

    -How do they enforce their claimed code of ethics and values throughout the workplace.
  13. Code of Ethics
    A formal statement of an organization's primary values and the ethical rules it expects its employees to follow
  14. Whistle Blower
    Individuals who raise ethical concerns or issues to others
  15. Social Entrepreneur
    An individual or organization who seeks out opportunities to improve society by using practical, innovative, and sustainable approaches
  16. Calm Waters Metaphor
    Lewin's description of the change process as a break in the organization's equilibrium state

    • -UNFREEZING the status quo
    • -CHANGING to a new state
    • -REFREEZING to make the change permanent
  17. External Forces for Change
    • -Changing consumer needs and wants
    • -New governmental laws
    • -Changing technology
    • -Economic changes
  18. Internal Forces of Change
    • -New organizational strategy
    • -Change in compostion of workforce
    • -New equipment
    • -Changing employee attitudes
  19. Organizational Change
    Any alterations in the people, structure, or tehcnology of an organization
  20. Change Agents
    Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process
  21. Types of Change Agents
    • MANAGERS -internal entrepreneurs
    • NONMANAGERS - change specialists
    • OUTSIDE CONSULTANTS - change implementation experts
  22. Types of Change
    • Structure
    • Technology
    • People
  23. Structure Change
    Changing an organization's structural components or its structural design
  24. Technological Change
    • Adopting new equipments, tools, or operating methods that displace old skills and require new ones
    • -Automation: replacing people with machines
    • -Computerization
  25. People Change
    Changing attitudes, expectations, perceptions, and behaviors of the workforce
  26. Organizational Development (OD)
    Techiniques or programs to change people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work realtionships
  27. Global OD
    OD techniques that work for U.S. organizations may be inappropriate in other countries and cultures
  28. Why people resist change?
    • Ambiguity and uncertainty that change introduces
    • The comfort of old habits
    • Concern over personal loss of status, money, authority, friendships, and personal convenience
    • The perception that change is incompatible with the goals and interest of the organization
  29. Stress
    The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure place on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities

    -Stressors -factors that cause that stress
  30. Stress - Role Conflicts
    Work expectations that are hard to satisfy
  31. Stress - Role Overlaod
    Having more work to accomplish than time permits
  32. Stress - Role Ambiguity
    When role expectations are not clearly understood
  33. Type A personality
    Have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitve drive
  34. Type B personality
    Relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily
  35. Decision
    Making a chocie from two or more alternatives
  36. Problem
    An obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or purpose
  37. Rational Decision Making
    Choices are logical and consistent while maximizing value
  38. Bounded Rationality
    Rational, but limited (bounded)n by an individual's ability to process information
  39. Satisfice
    Accepting solutions that are "good enough"
  40. Intuitive Decision Making
    Making decisions on the basis of experience, feelings, and accumulated judgement
  41. Programmed Decision
    A repetitive decision that can be handled by a routine approach
  42. Non-programmed Decision
    Unique and nonrecurring decisions that require a custom made solution
  43. Decisions Under Uncertainty
    • Limited information prevents estimation of outcome
    • Forces managers to rely on intuition and gut feelings
  44. Maximax
    • The optimistic manger's choice
    • Maximize the maximum payoff
  45. Maximin
    • The pessimistic manager's choice
    • Maximize the minimum payoff
  46. Minimax
    Choice to minimize maximum regret
  47. Linear Thinking Style
    • A person's tendency to use external data/facts
    • The habit of processing information through rational, logical thinking
  48. Non-Linear Thinking Style
    • A person's preference for internal source of information
    • A method of processing this information with internal insights, feelings, and hunches
  49. Heuristics
    Using "rules of thumb" to simplify decision making
  50. Overconfidence Bias
    Holding unrealistically positive views on oneself and one's performance
  51. Immediate Gratification Bia
    Choosing alternatives that offer immediate rewards and avoid immediate costs
  52. Anchoring Effect
    Fixating on inital information and ignoring subsequent information
  53. Selective Perception Bias
    Selecting, organizing, and interpreting events based on the decision maker's biased perceptions
  54. Confirmation Bias
    Seeking out information that reaffirms past choices while discounting contradictory information
  55. Planning
    • Defining the organization's goals
    • Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals
    • Developing plans for organizational work activities
  56. Formal Planning
    • Specific goals covering a specific time period
    • Written and share with organizational members
  57. Strategic Plans
    • Establish the organization's overall goals
    • Seek to position the organization in terms of its environment
    • Cover extended periods of time
  58. Operational Plans
    • Specify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved
    • Cover a short time period
  59. Management By Objectives (MBO)
    • Specific performance goals are jointly determined by employees and managers
    • Progress toward accomplishing goals is periodically reviewed
    • Rewards are allocated on the basis of progress towards the goals
    • Goal specificity
    • Participative decision making
    • An explicit performance/evaluation period
    • Feedback
  61. MBO - success
    Top management commitment and involvement
  62. MBO - Potential Problems
    • Less effective in dynamic environments that require constant resetting of goals
    • Overemphaiss on individual accomplishment may create problems with teamwork
  63. Planning in Hierarchy Organizations
    • Strategic Planning - Top executives, Middle level manager
    • Operational Planning- First level managers, middle level