Path Chap 7 Terms

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Path Chap 7 Terms
2012-10-15 23:23:39

For Path class, Exam 2
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  1. Respiration
    gas exchange
  2. Cilia
    mucus & tiny hair-like projections that cover the upper airway & bronchi serve to filter the incoming air
  3. Ventilation
    air moves into & out of the lungs as an effect of pressure changing within the thorax in accordance with a pricipal of physics called Boyle's Law
  4. Boyle's Law
    states that the relation between the volume & the pressure of a gas is constant; as volume increases, pressure decreases, & vice versa
  5. respiration
    oxygen & carbon dioxide are exchanged in the alveoli by diffusion
  6. Orthopnea
    dyspnea produced by the supine position
  7. Cough
    a reflex contraction of the diaphragm that forces a blast of air from the lungs in an attempt to eliminate an irritation in the airway
  8. Purulent
    sputum that contains pus, or opaque sputum are signs of lower respiratory infection
  9. Hemoptysis
    productive cough with blood in the sputum
  10. Cyanosis
    a bluish tint in the fingernails, lips, face, & mucus membranes that occurs when oxygen saturation in arterial blood decreases below 85%
  11. Pleurisy
    pleural pain
  12. Crepitus
    a subcutaneous grinding sensation, which indicates air leaking into the subcutaneous tissues
  13. Fremitus
    a subtle vibration of breathing, suggesting pulmonary or pleural edema
  14. Adventitious
    which are heard in addition to the normal breath sounds, include rales, rhonchi, strido, & pulmonary friction rub
  15. Rales
    a series of distict pops or cracks during inspiration that occur when blocked bronchi cause a collapse of distal bronchioles & alveoli
  16. Rhonchi
    continuous rumbling sounds auscultated during both inspiration & expiration, indicating an incomplete obstruction of bronchi or lower trachea producing turbulent air
  17. Stridor
    a harsh, raspy sound that is audible upon inspiration, often even without a stethoscope
  18. Croup
    stridor that occurs with coughing (barking-type cough)
  19. Hyperpnea
    an increase rate (over 20 breaths/min) or depth (over 750 mL) of ventilation
  20. Hyperventilation
    an increase in breathing rate without an increase in depth
  21. Atelectasis
    collapse of a lung segment's alveoli; it is not itself a disease, but a consequence of disease or injury
  22. Spirometer
    an instrument used to measure lung volumes during ventilation
  23. Anoxia
    a lack of oxygen, chich produces sever neurological & renal damage within minutes
  24. Pneumothorax
    "collapsed lung" - presence of air in the pleural space
  25. Tension Pneumothorax
    if the pleural space continues to conllect air..the intrathoracic presure rises rapidly with respect to the environment
  26. Hemothorax
    blood enters the pleural cavity
  27. Hemopneumothorax
    the presence of both blood & air into the cavity
  28. Dysphagia
    difficulty swallowing
  29. Atopy
    mild allergic reactions causing rhinitis, infection, or allergy cause sinustits & infection or environmental irritants cause bronchitis
  30. Urticarial
  31. Acute Bronchitis
    more frequently a result of an infection or chemical irritant that produces an inflammatory response; viral infection is the most common cause
  32. Chronic Bronchitis
    cause by prolonged or repeated exposure to irritants that inflame the bronchial mucous membranes
  33. Emphysema
    a complication of chronic pulmonary disease & prolonged smoking, is not likely to be encountered in physically active persons. It is a chronic inflammatory reaction to chemicals in smoke that destroys the alveolar walls, capillaries, & lung elasticitym & decreases the lung area that is available for gas exchange
  34. Coryza
    common cold
  35. Incubation
    time between infection & appearance of symptoms
  36. Bordetella Pertussis
    type of bacteria that causes respiratory infection known as pertussis, or whooping cough