Chapter 8: European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750-1000

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Chapter 8: European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750-1000
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  1. Eighth centuryà __ lost control of __ lands. __ became ruler until death in __, where son, __, deposed __ and assumed kingship of __ state for himself and family. His actions created new __ kingship. __ was king and anointed by representative of the pope with holy oil. It symbolized king’s entrustment with sacred office and fusion of __ institution with __ practice.
    • Merovingian dynasty
    • Frankish
    • Charles Martel
    • 741
    • Pepin
    • Merovingians
    • Frankish
    • Frankish
    • Pepin
    • Germanic
    • Christian
  2. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814)
    Pepin
    • a.      Pepin’s death brought Charlemagne to thrown.
    •                                                               i.      Determined, decisive, intelligent, inquisitive; greatly expanded territory of Carolingian empire
  3. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814)
    a.      Expansion
    •                                                               i.      Undertook 54 military campaigns
    • 1.      Frankish army small: 8000
    • a.      Supplying ad transporting it posed problems
    • b.      Mostly infantry, with some cavalry armed with swords and spears
    • 2.      Campaigns took him all over Europe
    • a.      773 crushed Lombards in Italy and controlled state
    • b.      Four years later, he advanced into northern Spain, where the Basques ambushed and annihilated his rear guard and led to fail
  4. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814)
    a.      Expansion Success
    •                                                               i.      Successful with eastern campaigns into Germany, especially with Saxons
    • 1.      Insisted they convert to Christianityà resistedà 804, Saxony pacified and added to Carolingian domain
    •                                                             ii.      Invaded Bavarians in Germany in 787 and incorporated into empire, which led to contact of Slavs and Avars
    • 1.      Avars disappeared after Charlemagne’s army devastated them
    •                                                           iii.      His empire covered western and central Europe
  5. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814)

     Governing
    •                                                               i.      Charlemagne continued efforts of father in organizing kingdom
    •                                                             ii.      No system of public taxation
    • 1.      Dependent on royal estates for resources
    • a.      Food and goods supported king and officials
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In return, he granted part of the royal lands as lifetime holdings to nobles who helped him
  6. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814) Governing
    Administration
    • 1.      Depended on counts, chief representatives in local areas
    • a.      Dangerous border district officials known as margraves used
    • 2.      Counts members of nobility already existent under Merovingians
    • a.      Controlled public services in own lands
    • b.      Acted as judges, military leaders, and agents of the king
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      With weakened Merovingian kings, they attached royal lands and services to own family possessions 
  7. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814) Governing Attempts
    • 1.      Attempted to limit power of counts to gain greater control over kingdom
    • a.      Required to serve outside own family lands and were moved periodically
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Tried to prevent heredity of position
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Instituted missi dominici, messengers of the lord king
    • 1.      Two men, one lay lord and one church official, who were sent out to local districts to ensure that the counts were executing the king’s wishes
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Counts also had assistants, but members of their household, not part of bureaucratic office
  8. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814) Governing Inefficiency
    • 1.      Inefficient
    • a.      Great distances made impossible exercising of supervision over local affairs
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      What held system together was personal loyalty to a single ruler who was strong enough to ensure loyalty by force when necessary
  9. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814) Governing
    Catholic CHurch
    • 1.      Catholic Church
    • a.       Valuable assistance in governing
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      System of ecclesiastical government within Christian church was disintegrated
    • 1.      Church offices not filled or held by unqualified relatives
    • b.      Pepin and Charlemagne created new bishoprics and archbishoprics, restoring old ones and seeing to it that clergy accepted orders of their superiors and executed their duties
    • c.       Insisted that church officials restore churches that had fallen into disrepair
  10. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814) Governing
    Emperorship
    • a.       Emperorship
    •                                                               i.      Prestige as most powerful Christian rulerà emperor of the Romans (800)
    •                                                             ii.      During Pepin’s reign, king of Franks and papacy allied
    • 1.      Charlemagne encouraged it
    • a.       799: Pope Leo III escaped rebellion by going to Charlemagne’s court
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Christmas day in 800, he was crowned emperor of the Romans
  11. I.                   Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768-814) Governing 
    Significance
    •                                                               i.      Level of equality with Byzantine emperor
    •                                                             ii.      Papacy had a defender of great stature
    •                                                           iii.      Demonstrated strength of Roman empire
    •                                                           iv.      Symbolized fusion of Roman, Christian, and Germanic elements
    • 1.      Germanic king crowned emperor of Romans by spiritual leader
    • a.       Large empire created
  12. I.                   The Carolingian Intellectual Renewal
    • a.       Charlemagne wanted to revive learning
    •                                                               i.      Provide educated clergy for church and literate officials for government
    • 1.      Led to revival of learning and culture= Carolingian Renaissance
    • b.      Revival of Classical studies/ efforts to preserve Latin culture took place in monasteries
    •                                                               i.      9th century: Benedictine monks copied manuscripts
    •                                                             ii.      Monasteries established scriptoria, or writing rooms, where monks copied works of early Christianity and Classical Latin authors
  13. I.                   The Carolingian Intellectual Renewal
    Carolingian Monks
    • a.       Carolingian monks developed new ways of producing books
    •                                                               i.      Texts on parchment or sheepskin and bound in decorated covers
    • 1.      Expensive
    •                                                             ii.      Also developed new writing style= Carolingian minuscule
    • 1.      Hand printing rather than cursive
    • b.      Production of manuscripts preserved ancient legacy
  14. I.                   The Carolingian Intellectual Renewal
    Charlemagne Promotion of Leraning
    • a.       Charlemagne promoted learning by establishing palace school and encouraging all scholars to come to Carolingian court
    •                                                               i.      Men of letters from Italy, Spain, Germany, and Ireland
    • 1.      Alcuin, or Einhard the “greatest scholar of that day”
    • a.       From school of York, a product of great revival of learning in the Angle- Saxon kingdom of Northumbria
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Also provided school leadership
    • 1.      Taught Classical Latin and adopted Cassiodorus’ sevenfold division of knowledge known as liberal arts
  15. I.                   The Carolingian Intellectual Renewal
    Charlemagne's Official Seal
    •                                                               i.      Words “renewal of the Roman empire”
    • 1.      Revival of arts (Italian inspiration and arts of ancient Rome and Byzantine)
    • a.       Chapel at Aachen modeled after Church of San Vitale in Ravenna
    • b.      Carolingian Renaissance played important role in keeping Classical heritage alive
  16. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Marriage 
    • a.       Fusion of Roman, Germanic, and Christian practices
    • b.      Family and Marriage
    •                                                               i.      Church impacted Frankish family life and marital/ sexual attitudes
    • 1.      Marriages arranged by fathers or uncles to meet needs of extended family
    • 2.      Wives to be faithful, but aristocrats kept concubines
    •                                                             ii.      To limit sexual license, church impacted marriage and wanted to Christianize it
    • 1.      Marriage was a civil arrangement, but priests tried to add blessings and strengthen the concept
    • a.       Tried to serve as caretaker by saying a girl over fifteen must consent to choice or marriage not valid                                                               i.      Emphasis on monogamy and permanence
  17. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Emperor Louis the Pious
    •                                                               i.      During Emperor Louis the Pious, the church established the right to prohibit divorce
    • 1.      Not easily accepted
    • 2.      Monogamy and indissoluble marriage hindered concubinage
    •                                                             ii.      Indissolubility of marriage led to nuclear family at extended family expense
    • 1.      Conjugal unit= basic unit of society
    • a.       Young couples established own households
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Wife now had control of her own household and children
  18. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Christianity and Sexuality
    •                                                               i.      Ideal state superior to marriage: celibacy and complete abstinence
    • 1.      Case for clerical celibacy developed
    •                                                             ii.      Not all people had self-discipline to be celibate
    • 1.      Thus permissible to marry
    • a.       Marriage was lesser of two evils:
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Concession to human weakness
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Fulfilled need for companionship, sex, and children
    • b.      Marriage gave right to indulge in sex, but only for procreation
  19. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Sex
    •                                                               i.      Sex for procreationà condemnation of contraception and abortion
    • 1.      Only one way to limit children= abstinence
    •                                                             ii.      Condemned homosexuality
    • 1.      No real law against it until Emperor Justinian in 538 condemned it
    • a.       Guilty parties be punished by castration
    • 2.      Early Middle Ages: homosexuals treated less harshly than married couples who practiced contraception
  20. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Children and Impact
    •                                                               i.      Impacted by Church
    • 1.      Romans used to do infanticide and focus on survived children
    • 2.      In early medieval world, German child rearing practices were influential
    • a.       Wergelds, whose size represented crude evaluation of person’s importance
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Visigoth code: male children valued at 60 solidi
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      20: when they became warriors valued to 300 solidi until declined at age fifty
    • 1.      Female was half that of male but jumped when child bearing age reached
  21. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Infanticide
    •                                                               i.      Infanticide condemned, but not eliminated
    • 1.      Promoted abandonment of kids in churches instead
    • a.       Taken in by monasteries and convents and raised to be monks and nuns
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Strict discipline due to natural inclination of sin
  22. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Travel and Hospitality
    •                                                               i.      Monasteries= hospitable and provided place to stay for travelers
    •                                                             ii.      Burgundian law:
    • 1.      Anyone who refused to offer shelter pays fine
    •                                                           iii.      Hospitality sacred duty
    • 1.      Monasteries had two guest houses, one for rich and poor
    •                                                           iv.      Downside: females forced into prostitution to obtain sustenance and reach goal
    • 1.      Church banned women from pilgrimages
  23. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Diet
    •                                                               i.      Bread main staple
    •                                                             ii.      Upper class
    • 1.      Pork
    • a.       Hunting wild game became favorite activity
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Little beef or mutton because dairy cows and oxen used elsewhere
    •                                                           iii.      Dairy
    • 1.      Milkà cheese and butter
    • 2.      Eggs
    • 3.      Vegetables 
  24. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Diet pt. 2
    •                                                               i.      Honey and Spices
    • 1.      Honey: sweetener
    • 2.      Spices: grown in home gardens and expensive
    • a.       Sign of prestige and wealth and belief of aiding digestion
    •                                                             ii.      Gluttony and drunkenness= vices
    • 1.      Monastic rations enlarged in 8th c. to include daily allotment of 3.7 pounds of bread
    • a.       6000 calories a day
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Malnutrition still widespread for common people
  25. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Diet pt. 3
    •                                                               i.       
    • 1.      Everyone drank in excess
    • a.       Taverns found everywhere
    • b.      Drinking contests
    • 2.      Wine favored
    • 3.      Ale was inferior but popular in some parts of Carolingian word
    • 4.      Water drunk as beverage, but had to be pure
    • a.       Also used for bathing
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Personal hygiene not high
    • 1.      Aristocrats bathed and changed clothes once a week
    • 2.      Saturday bath a regular practice in monasteries
  26. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Health
    • 1.      Medical practice= use of medicinal herbs and bleeding
    • 2.      Moderation and carefulness
    • 3.      Physicians available
    • a.       Clerics
    • b.      Monasteries trained their own
    • 4.      Monastic libraries kept medical manuscripts and grew herbs to provide stocks of medicinal plants
    • a.       Scientific descriptions of illnesses, recipes for potions, gynecological advice, operations, narcotics: mandrake, henbane, poppy
  27. I.                   Life in Carolingian World
    Health Pt. 2
    • 1.      Physicians supplemented medicines and practices with appeals for otherworldly help
    • a.       Magical rites and influences; magical medicine
    • b.      Recommended patients wear amulets and charms
    • 2.      Christianity viewed miraculous healing through the intervention of God, Jesus, or saints

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