Chapter 8: European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750-1000

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Chapter 8: European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750-1000
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2012-10-15 23:35:51
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Part Disintegration Carolingian Empire
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  1. Charlemagne's Death
    • I.                   Began to disintegrate soon after Charlemagne’s death
    • a.      Succeeded by son Louis the Pious
    •                                                               i.      Not a strong ruler
    •                                                             ii.      Unable to control Frankish aristocracy or own four sons, who fought
    • 1.      843: after dad’s death, the three surviving brothers signed Treaty of Verdun
    • a.      Divided Carolingian Empire into three major sections
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Charles the Bald obtained western Frankish lands, which formed the core of the kingdom of France
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Louis the German took eastern lands, which became Germany
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Lothar received emperor title and “Middle Kingdom” extending from North Sea to the Mediterranean
    • 1.      These territories became source of struggle between the other two Frankish rulers and heirs
  2. Charlemagne's Death
    Division
    •                                                               i.      Division created two different cultures
    • 1.      Western Frankish area:
    • a.      Romance language from Latin that became French
    • 2.      Eastern Franks:
    • a.      Germanic dialect
    •                                                             ii.      Disintegration of empire was due to frequent struggles of rulers and external attacks on different parts of the Carolingian world, as well as acquirement of aristocratic power in local territories
  3. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
    Muslims
    •                                                               i.      Muslim expansion ended at beginning
    • 1.      Built up sea bases in occupied territories and attacked Mediterranean in 9th century
    • a.      Raided Europe and threatened Rome in 843
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Invasion of Sicily in 827 led to successful occupation of island
    • b.      Muslim forces also destroyed Carolingian defenses and conducted forays into southern France
  4. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
    Magyars
    •                                                               i.      Magyars from western Asia
    • 1.      Encouraged by Byzantines to attack Bulgars, the Bulgars encouraged the Pechengs to attack the Magyars
    • a.      Caused Magyars to move west
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Established selves on plains of Hungary and made raids in w. Europe
    • 1.      Finally crushed at the Battle of Lechfeld in Germany in 955
    • a.      10th century, they were converted to Christianity and settled down to establish Hungary
  5. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
    The Vikings
    •                                                               i.      Most devastating and far-reaching attacks  from these Germanic people
    • 1.      Final wave of Germanic migration
    • a.      Overpopulation or love of adventure and search for wealth and new avenues of trade
  6. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
    Viking Society
    • 1.      Warriors
    • 2.      Superb shipbuilders and sailors
    • a.      Best ships of period
    • b.      Dragon ships carried about 50 men
    • c.       Shallow draft allowed sailing up rivers and attacking places
    • 3.      Raids were small-scale and sporadicà more regular and more devastating
    • a.      Sacked villages and towns
    • b.      Destroyed churches
    • c.       Easily defeated small local armies
    • d.      Frightened people
  7. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
    Viking Society
    Different Groups of Scandinavians
    • a.      Viking expansion varied a great deal
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Norwegian Vikings moved into Ireland and w. England
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Danes attacked and navigated rivers to enter western Frankish lands
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Swedish Vikings dominated Baltic Sea and progressed into Slavic areas to east
    • 1.      Moved into Russia and established ports through territories
    • a.      Made contact with Byzantine empire, either as traders or as invaders
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Contact with Arab traders
  8. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
    Viking Raids
    • 1.      Early raids carried out largely in the summer
    • a.      Norsemen settled in Ireland
    • b.      Danes occupied an area known as the Danelaw in northeastern England by 878
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Agreeing to accept Christianity, they eventually assimilated into Anglo-Saxon kingdom
  9. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
    Viking : 911
    • 1.      911à the ruler of western Frankish lands gave one band of Vikings land, forming a section of France that became Normandy
    • a.      Policy of settling the Vikings and converting them to Christianity was deliberate
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      New inhabitants protected against further attacks
    • 2.      Daring explorers
    • a.      After 860: sailed across north Atlantic Ocean, reaching Iceland
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Erik the Red exiled from Icelandà discovered Greenland
    • 1.      Only known Viking site in North America found in Newfoundland
  10. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Viking 10th Century
    • a.      Expansion closing
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Greater control by monarchs of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden over inhabitants+ increasing Christianization of both Scandinavian kings and people= inhibited Viking expansion
    • 1.      Still established several areas
    • a.      Assimilated into European culture
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Europe↔Christianity
  11. I.                   Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries Viking Political Repercussions
    • a.      Inability of royal authorities to protect people caused local people to support local aristocrats for security
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Aristocrats increased strength and prestige and assumed more functions of local government previously owned by kingsà new political/ military order

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