Chapter 8: European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750-1000

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Chapter 8: European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750-1000
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Part Zenith Byzantine Civilization
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  1. In the seventh and eighth centuries, the Byzantine Empire lost much territory to __. 750: the empire consisted of only only Asia Minor, some lands in the Balkans, and the southern coast of Italy. Byzantium was beset with internal dissension and invasions, but still expanded, reaching its high point in the tenth century--> __
    • Slavs, Bulgars, and Muslims
    •  GOLDEN AGE OF BYZANTINE CIVILIZATION 
  2. Michael III
    • a.      Empire experienced revival
    •                                                               i.      Iconoclasm abolished
    •                                                             ii.      Reforms made in education, church life, military, and peasant economy
    • b.      Intellectual revival
  3. Michael III problems
    •                                                               i.      Bulgars attacked
    •                                                             ii.      Arabs harassed empire
    •                                                           iii.      Church problem with political repercussions
    • 1.      Erupted over differences between pope as leader of western Christian church and patriarch of Constantinople as leader of the eastern Christian Church
    • a.      Patriarch Photius
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Condemned pope as heretic for accepting revised Nicene Creed stating that Holy Spirit proceeded from father and son instead of just father
    • 1.      Excommunicated popeà Photian schism
  4. Macedonian Dynasty
    • a.      Held off external enemies
    • b.      Went over to offensive
    • c.       Reestablished domestic order
    • d.      Supported by church
    •                                                               i.      Emperors thought of Byzantine empire as continuation of Christian Roman Empire
    •                                                             ii.      Recognized imperial title of western emperors such as Charlemagne and Otto I
  5. Macedonian Dynasty (867-1081)
    Emperors
    • a.      Emperors
    •                                                               i.      Worked to strengthen the position of the free farmers, who were threatened by attempts of aristocrats to expand estates
    • 1.      Aware that the free farmers made up cavalry and provided military strength of empire
    •                                                             ii.      Fostered burst of economic prosperity by expanding trade with w. Europe
    • 1.      Constantinople flourished
    • a.      Foreign visitors astounded 
  6. Macedonian Dynasty (867-1081)
    Culture and Enjoyment
    • a.      Culture of Byzantine
    •                                                               i.      Expanded due to missionary efforts
    • 1.      Eastern Orthodox Christianity spread to eastern Europeans
    • b.      Byzantium enjoyed strong civil service, talented emperors, and military advances
    •                                                               i.      Civil service staffed by well educated aristocrats from Constantinople
    • 1.      Collected taxes, domestic administration, and foreign policy
  7. Macedonian Dynasty (867-1081)
    Emperor Skill
    • a.      Emperors skilled in administration and law
    •                                                               i.      Leo VI and Basil II
    •                                                             ii.      10th: competent emperors + talented generals= mobilized military resources and take offensive
    • 1.      Bulgars defeated
    • a.      Eastern and western Bulgaria parts annexed to empire
    • 2.      Added islands
    • 3.      Defeated Muslim forces, expanding empire
    •                                                           iii.      End of Basil II rule in 1025, Byzantine Empire was at largest

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