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Role of counter-regulatory hormones - glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines.
- increased breakdown of TG --> FFA and glycerol in adipose tissue
- mobilization of FFA
- increase blood glucose
- cortisol increases gluconeogenesis - increase blood glucose production
What effect will NKH have on lipolysis when compared with DKA?
- NKH = no effect on lipolysis
- DKA = increases lipolysis
- decreased or no insulin --> decreased uptake of glucose by adipocytes and muscle cells
- increased breakdown of TG --> FFA and glycerol in adipose tissue --> mobilization of FFA
What alterations in serum osmolality would you expect in HHNK vs. DKA and why?
- serum osmolality in HHNK approximately 400 mmol/L
- (320 mmol/L in DKA)
- HHNK =
- = dramatic volume loss
- = dehydration
- = decreased vascular volume
Know the different cells that require glucose for insulin uptake.
- in absence of insulin, these are truly diabetic cells
Which cell type is most dependent on glucose for energy?
- - very little glycogen storage
- - little TG storage
- - big glucose demand
- - absolute glucose dependency
When would you expect to see an increase in VLDL synthesis by the liver? (p.15)
increased mobilization of FAs to liver --> increased gluconeogenesis and synthesis of VLDLs --> circulation and accumulation of FAs in liver (droplet form)
What effect would insulin deprivation have on circulating VLDLs?
circulation and accumulation of fatty acids in the liver
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