chapters 1 and 2.txt
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Observations that are consistent with what we would expect to experience if a theory is correct or an intervention is effective
- duplication of the study to expose or reduce error or the reintroduction or withdrawal of an intervention to increase the internal validity of a quasi-experiment or single case design evaluation.
- one possible result in the elaboration model elaboration model that occurs when an original bivariate relationship appears to be essentially the same in multivariate analysis
an approach to inquiry that attempts to safeguard against errors commonly made in casual human inquiry. chief features include viewing to refutation, searching for evidence based on systematic and comprehensive observation pursuing objectivity in observation and replication
How do we know things?
tradition, authority, common sense, popular media
- using the best scientific evidence available in deciding how to intervene with individual, families, groups or communities
- critical thinking questioning, recognizing
formulating questions, gathering evidence, critically analyzing found studies, choose course of action, evaluate effectiveness of process
top down strategy
rely on results of other studies start with theory and past literature to create expected behavior
bottom up strategy
gather evidence yourself- to create theory
randomized clinical trails (RCTs)
experiments that use random means to assign clients who share similar problems or diagnoses into groups that receive different interventions. if the predicted difference in outcome in found between the groups, it is not plausible at attribute that difference to a priori differences between two incomparable groups.
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