111 Ch 31

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eternity2130
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111 Ch 31
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2012-10-16 10:28:35
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Den 111 Ch 31
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  1. Soft Palate and Pharynx
    • * Share common boundaries with the upper end of the digestive and respiratory systems.
    • * Production of speech.
    • * Soft palate forms posterior end of the roof of the mouth.
    • * Helps seal off the nasal cavity from the oral cavity.
  2. Pharynx has 3 parts
    • 1) Nasal pharynx
    • * Upper part. Posterior end of nasal cavity.
    • 2) Oral pharynx
    • * Middle part. Back throat wall
    • 3) Laryngeal pharynx
    • * Lower part. Below the tongue where the digestive and respiratory systems branch.
  3. Soft Palate
    • 5 pairs of muscles
    • 1) Palatoglossal muscle
    • 2) Palatopharyngeal muscle  
    • 3) Muscles of Uvula 
    • 4) Levator Veli Palatini 
    • 5) Tensor Veli Palatini
  4. Fauces
    Space between the left and right palatine tonsils
  5. 1) Palatoglossal muscle 
    • * Look in your mouth at the side tonsils and you will see vertical folds in front (called the Palatoglossal fold) and behind (called the Palatopharyngeal fold).
    • * Palatoglossal muscle is under the Palatoglossal fold.
    • * Origin from posterior end of hard palate and anterior soft palate.
    • * Insert into posterior and lateral part of the tongue.
    • * When it contracts:
    • 1) Pulls the soft palate down on the lateral edges
    • 2) Pulls the sides of the tongue up and back.
    • Nerves-
    • 1) Vagus nerve (part of the 10th cranial nerve).
    • 2) Accessory nerve (branches of the 11th cranial nerve).
  6. 2) Palatopharyngeal muscle
    • * Origin- Posterolateral part of the soft palate runs down and laterally.
    • * Insert- Into pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the thyroid cartilage of the larynx.
    • * Contracts- Elevates pharynx and larynx.
    • * Nerves-
    • 1) Vagus cranial nerve (10th)
    • 2) Accessory cranial nerve (11th)
  7. 3) Muscles of Uvula 
    • * The small fold of tissue that hangs down in the throat
    • * Formed by two small bands of muscle.
    • * Origin- From the posterior end of the hard palate and runs back and down into the soft palate.
    • * Has no insertion. (it hangs there)
    • * Contract- it shortens and broadens the uvula and changes the contour of the posterior end of the soft palate.
    • * Nerves;
    • 1) Vagus cranial nerve(10th)
    • 2) Accessory cranial nerve(11th)
  8. 4) Levator Veli Palatini 
    • * Elevate the posterior end of the soft palate.
    • * Origin- Temporal bone and by the auditory canal
    • * Insert- Posterior part of the soft palate.
    • * Contracts-
    • 1) Pulls the posterior end of the soft palate up.
    • 2) Also helps open the auditory tube if it is edematous and closed.
    • * Nerves-
    • 1) Vagus cranial nerve(10th)
    • 2) Accessory cranial nerve(11th)
  9. 5) Tensor Veli Palatini 
    • * Origin- Near medial pterygoid palate, where it meets the body of the sphenoid bone, as well as from the lateral wall of the cartilage of the auditory tube.
    • * Insert- Posterior edge of hard palate and anterior portion of the soft palate.
    • * Opens auditory tube when closed. Also tenses the anterior portion of the soft palate.
    • * Nerves-
    • 1) V3 of the 5th cranial nerve. Trigeminal nerve
  10. Pharynx
    • * Has 2 groups of muscles associated with it.
    • 1) 1st group -Constricts the pharynx(3 pairs of pharyngeal constrictor muscles).
    • 2) 2nd group-Elevates and dilates the pharynx.
  11. Pharyngeal constrictor muscles
    • 1) Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
    • 2) Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
    • 3) Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
  12. 1) Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
    • * Contracts- Forces food down toward esophagus.
    • * Origin- Lower part of the medial pterygoid plate.
    • * Insert- into the base of the skull just in front of foramen magnum.
    • * Nerve-
    • 1) Vagus cranial nerve(10th)
    • 2) Accessory cranial nerve(11th)
  13. 2) Middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle 
    • * Origin- From the posterior, upper part of the hyoid bone and stylohyoid ligament.
    • * Inserts- Into the Median raphe (a midline joining the left and right pharyngeal constrictor muscle in the posterior throat wall).
    • * Contracts- Forces the food toward the esophagus.
    • * Nerve-
    • 1) Vagus cranial nerve (10th)
    • 2) Accessory cranial nerve (11th)
  14. 3) Inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle 
    • * Origin- Posterior part of the thyroid cartilage.
    • * Inserts- into the median raphe.
    • * Contracts- Forces the food into the esophagus.
    • * Nerves-
    • 1) Vagus cranial nerve(10th)
    • 2) Accessory cranial nerve(11th)
  15. Pharyngeal Elevators and Dilators
    • 1) Palatopharyngeal muscle 
    • 2) Stylopharyngeal muscle 
    • 3) Salpingopharyngeal muscle
  16. 1) Palatopharyngeal muscle
    • * Works with the soft palate and elevates the pharynx.
    • * Nerve- Vagus( 10th) and Accessory(11th)
  17. 2) Stylopharyngeal muscle 
    • * Origin- From the base of the styloid process on the medial side.
    • * Insert- Into the lateral pharyngeal wall and the thyroid cartilage of the larynx.
    • * Contract- Dilation and elevation of the pharynx.
    • * This is the primary dilator of the pharynx.
    • * Nerve-Glossopharyngeal cranial nerve(9th)
  18. 3) Salpingopharyngeal muscle 
    • * Origin- End of the auditory tube in the lateral wall of the nasal pharynx.
    • * The fibers run down and blend in with the Palatopharyngeal muscle and the lateral pharyngeal wall.
    • * Contract- lifts the pharyngeal wall in the act of swallowing.
    • * Nerves-
    • 1) Vagus cranial nerve(10th)
    • 2) Accessory cranial nerve(11th)
  19. Actions
    • 1) Speech
    • 2) Swallowing
  20. 1)Speech
    • * We pull the soft palate up and back to contract the posterior pharyngeal wall.
    • * This is accomplished by the levator veli palantini and muscles of the uvula.
    • * Without this you have a definite nasal sound.
    • * Examples: Enlarged adenoids and Cleft palate.
  21. 2) Swallowing
    • * Pathway of swallowing meat
    • Incised by the anterior teeth
    • Ground up by the posterior teeth
    • Food is mixed with saliva
    • Reaches proper consistency
    • Shaped into a ball of food by the teeth, cheeks and tongue (Called a bolus of food)
    • The tongue moves the bolus back into the oral pharyngeal area.
    • This area is then sealed off by the soft palate and the back of the tongue from the front of the tongue and oral cavity.
    • We then see the elevators and dilators of the pharynx lift and widen to receive the bolus of food.
    • Next the contrictors compress the upper part of the food down into the laryngeal pharynx.
    • Then the thyroid cartilage with other muscles lift. This allows the epiglottis to shelter the laryngeal opening from food moving into it.
    • The food moves down into the upper esophagus.
  22. The upper part of the esophagus uses Voluntary Skeletal muscles and half way down, then the Involuntary Smooth muscle takes over.
    EX. You can swallow food standing on your head. Don't try it.
  23. Peristaltic contractions
    involuntary muscles creates a wavelike constrictions of the lower esophagus.

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