--Write out problem with potential solutions, risks, consequences, use decision tree (rate best possible outcomes)
Identify objectives and alternatives
--For each solution
Evaluate alternatives and solutions
--Who benefits, who are the stakeholders, and how will they be affected?
Choose a viable program
--Stanhope and Lancaster, pg. 275, 2006
What is Epidemiology?
A field of science which is concerned with the factors and conditions that determine the occurrence and distribution of health, disease, defect, disability, and death among groups of individuals
What's involved in epidemiology?
Identify deviations: Is there more than expected?
Prevention and control:
Study the patterns and trends in human populations relative to time, place, and persons for the purpose of preventing disease, and maintaining & promoting health.
Definition of terms:
Host: one who gets the disease and displays symptoms
know age, sex, and other demographics.
know diseases nutrition, genetics, etc.
know risks for aquiring disease
know hosts' health habits, ie hygien, nutrition, occupation, etc.
Agent: the pathogen that causes disease
Measures of morbidity/mortality
Rate: # of events/population size and dimension of time
Proportion: # deaths from one event/total # deaths
What is the difference between incidence vs prevalence?
Incidence Proportion: reflects the cumulative effect of the incidence over time: also called the cumulative incidence rate (risk = incidence rate + length of time population is at risk). Measure of NEW cases. Is a snapshot of the current situation.
Prevalence Proportion: Measure of existing disease in a population at a particular time: # existing cases/current population.
--Includes both NEW AND OLD.
Risk: a fxn of both the rate of new cases and length of time the population is at risk
Epidemic: rate of event exceeds the usual level.
Crude Mortality rate: Proportion of a population that die from any cause/#population
Age-specific rate: # deaths of an age group/#population
Case Fatality rate: Cause-specific rate
Infant Mortality rate: # infant deaths before 1 yr of age in a year/number of live births in the same year. First indicator of health risks for a population.
Neonatal mortality rate: # infant deaths from birth to 28 days in a year/#live births