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Name the 3 structures of the ear
- Outer ear
- Middle ear
- Inner ear
What are the structures of the outer ear?
- -Auricle or Pinna: captures and directs sound down through the ear canal which is about 3/4" long in adults.
- -Ear Canal or the External Auditory Meatus: conducts sound waves toward the eardrum
- -The ear canal ends at the Tympanic Membrane or eardrum
-Wax which prevents the canal from drying out and from insects
What are the structures of the middle ear?
- -It begins at the tympanic membrane or eardrum and ends at the oval window.
- -There are 3 tiny bones in the middle ear space called OSSICLES (Malleus, Incus, and Stapes or the Hammer, Anvil and Stirrup)
- -The EUSTACHIAN TUBE: connects the middle ear with the nose/throat
What are the structures of inner ear?
Cochlea (hearing) and the Semicircular Canals (balance)
- 1. Screening
- 2. Air conduction
- 3. Bone conduction
Types of hearing loss
- Conductive hearing loss
- Sensory/neural hearing loss
What causes conductive hearing loss?
- External blockage
- Perforated eardrum
- Genetic and congenital abnormalities
- Otitis media
What causes sensory/neural hearing loss?
- Hereditary hearing loss
- Perinatal cochlea hearing losses
- Trama induced
- Vascular accidents
- Drug induced hearing loss
- Viral and bacterial illness
- Meniere's disease
What is mixed hearing loss?
Both conductive and sensorineural
What is auditory processing disorders?
Related to auditory pahtways in the nervous system.
What are the ways to treat hearing loss?
- Audotory training
- Training nonuditory cues
- Cochlear implants
What is the cochlear implant?
- A medical intervention
- Relies on electrical impulses
- It is designed for individuals with severe to profound degrees of hearing loss
How do we help children with severe to profound hearing loss to communicate?
- -Use hearing aids, listening systems, cochlear implants
- -Oral method of communication
- -American Sign Language (ASL)
- -Total Communication
- -ASL and Bilingual-Bicultural Programs
- -Auditory-Verbal Therapy
What is auditory-verbal therapy?
- -It promotes early diagosis of hearing loss in newborns, infants, toddlers, and young children followed by immediate audiologic management and auditory-verbal therapy
- -Goal is to guide and coach parents to help their child use hearing as the primary sensory modality in developing listening and spoken language.
What are some of the suggestions for the new speech reader?
- -Acknowledge the fact that you have a hearing loss
- -Watch the speaker, be aware of his lip movements, gestures, and exressions.
- -Use preferential seating
What are some of the suggestions for friends of the hearing impaired?
- -Speak clearly
- -Do not yell
- -Do not speak too quickly
What are the structures of the cochlea?
When the cochlea is stretched out and cut, we can see the 3 ducts and all the structures.
The cochlea consists of 3 ducts: Vestibular (top), Cochlear (middle), and Tympanic duct (bottom).
The information enters through the oval window and travels through the vestibular duct and comes back around through the tympanic duct and exists through the round window. A membrane outside of the round window absorbs the impact.
The cochlea duct is in between the vestibular and tympanic duct. Inside of the cochlea duct lies the organ of corti and it runs through the entire cochlea. As information travels around the vestibular and tympanic duct, the cranial nerves of the tectorial membrane (top) and the hairs of the organ of corti (bottom) connect and pass electrical impulses down the auditory nerves heading to the temporal lobes.
The organ of corti sits on the Basilar membrane and running over head lies the tectorial membrane.
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