Daily Concept Review 2

Card Set Information

Author:
lazzsant
ID:
178121
Filename:
Daily Concept Review 2
Updated:
2012-10-23 09:30:36
Tags:
Daily concept review
Folders:

Description:
Daily concept review 2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user lazzsant on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Lateral area of the hypothalamus
    Hunger

    Destruction leads to anorexia, failure to thrive.

    Inhibited by Leptin
  2. Ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus
    Basal ganglia

    to

    prefrontal, premotor and orbital cotrices
  3. The indirect/inhibitory pathway
    • Cortex inhibits GPe ->
    • no inhibition of STN ->
    • activation of GPi ->
    • Inhibition of the thalamus ->
    • inhibition of movement
  4. Central pontine myelinosis
    Acute paralysis, dysarthria, dysphagia, diplopia, and loss of consciousness. Irreversible

    Caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia
  5. Lateral medullary syndrome
    Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

    • Pain and temp loss C/L body
    • Pain and temp loss I/L face
    • No gag reflex
    • Horner's syndrome I/L
    • nystagmus
    • cerebellar problems I/L
    • vertigo
  6. Origin of the meningeal artery
    • External carotid ->
    • maxillary artery ->
    • meningeal artery
  7. Irreversible neuronal injury
    • red neurons (12-48 hours)
    • necrosis & neutrophils (24-72 hours)
    • macrophages (3-5 days)
    • reactive gliosis + vascular proliferation(1-2 weeks)
    • glial scar (>2 weeks)
  8. Hepatoduodenal ligament
    Liver to duodenum

    • Contains: Portal Triad
    • - hepatic artery
    • portal vein
    • Common bile duct

    Contains greater and lesser sacs
  9. Menetrier's disease
    • Gastric hypertrophy with protein loss, parietal cell atrophy, and increase mucous cells.
    • Precancerous
    • Rugae of stomach are so hypertophied that they look like brain gyri
  10. Lewy body dementia
    • Parkinsonism with dementia and visual hallucinations
    • repeated falls and syncope

    HISTO: a-synuclein defect
  11. cerebral amyloid angiopathy
    B amyloid deposits in artery -> weakening -> rupture -> recurrent lobar hemorrhage
  12. Sturge-Weber syndrome
    Congenital disorder with port-wine stains(aka nevus flammeus), typically in V1 ophthalmic distribution; I/L leptomeningeal angiomas, pheochromocytomas.

    Can cause glaucoma, seizures, hemiparesis, and mental retardation.

    Occurs sporadically
  13. Methoxyflurane
    High solubility in lipid and blood = slow induction but high potency

    • EFFECTS:
    • myocardial depression
    • respiratory depression
    • increased cerebral blood flow (inc ICP)

    • Toxicity:
    • nephrotoxic
    • malignant hyperthermia
  14. Parkinsons drugs
    • Agonize Dopamine receptors:
    • - Bromocriptine, ropinirole, pramipexole

    • Inc dopamine:
    • - l-dopa/carbidopa
    • - Amantidine (increase dopamine release)

    • Inhibit Dopamine breakdown
    • - Selegiline (MAOB-I)
    • - entacapone, tolcapone (COMT I)

    • Dec ach amount
    • - Benztropine
  15. Alzheimers Treatment
    • Memantine- NMDA receptor antagonist
    • - S/E: Dizziness, confusion, hallucinations

    • Donepezil, galantimine, rivastigmine
    • - AChE inhibitors
    • - S/E: Nausea, dizziness, insomnia
  16. MUDPILES
    • Methanol
    • Uremia
    • Diabetic ketoacidosis
    • Paraldehyde
    • INH or iron tablets
    • Lactic acidosis
    • Ethylene glycol
    • Salicylates

    Causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis
  17. Branches of the abdominal aorta and spinal level correspondence
    • Celiac trunk- T12
    • Superior mesenteric artery - L1
    • Renal artery- L1
    • Testicular/ ovarian arteries- L2
    • Inferior mesenteric artery- L3
    • Bifurcation of abdominal aorta- L4
  18. Anastomosis of the greater curvature of the stomach
    Left gastroepiploic <- splenic artery <- celiac trunk

    Right gastroepiploic <- gastroduodenal <- common hepatic <- celiac trunk
  19. Boerhave syndrome
    Transmural esophageal rupture due to violent retching
  20. Abetalipoproteinemia
    Autosomal recessive

    dec synthesis of apo B -> inability to generate chylomicrons -> dec synthesis of cholesterol, VLDL into bloddstream -> fat accumulation in enterocytes.

    • Presents in childhood with malabsorption and progressive ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa
    • RBC acanthocytes
  21. Chronic gastritis Type A
    fundus/body

    • Autoimmune disorder w/ ab to parietal cells
    • pernicious anemia
    • achlorhydria
  22. Difference between ulcers and erosions
    Erosions dont invade the muscularis mucosa

    ulcers invade the muscularis mucosa
  23. What is Meckels diverticulum
    Persistence of the vitelline duct or yolk stalk
  24. CRC progression
    • normal -> (APC)->
    • early adenoma -> (KRAS)->
    • late adenoma -> (P53, DCC) ->
    • adenocarcinoma
  25. Effects of liver failure
    • Coma (hepatic encephlopathy)
    • Scleral icterus
    • Fetor hepaticus
    • Spider nevi
    • Gynecomastia
    • Jaundice
    • Testicular atrophy
    • asterixis
    • Bleeding tendency (dec prothrombin and clotting factors)
    • Anemia
    • Ankle edema
  26. Alcoholic hepatitis
    Requires sustained, long term consumption of alcohol

    • Swollen and necrotic hepatocytes with neutrophilic infiltration
    • Mallory bodies (intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions)

    AST > ALT (>1.5)
  27. Budd Chiari syndrome
    Occlusion of IVC or hepatic vein with centrilobular congestion and necrosis -> congestive liver disease

    No JVD

    Associated with hypercoaguable state, polycythemia vera, pregnancy, and hepatocellular carcinoma
  28. Differences between
    Secondary Biliary cirrhosis
    Primary biliary cirrhosis
    Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
    • Secondary Biliary Cirrhosis:
    • - extrahepatic biliary obstruction -> increase pressure in intrahepatic ducts -> injury/fibrosis and bile stasis

    • Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
    • - Autoimmune reaction -> lymphocytic infiltrate + granulomas.
    • - Inc serum mitochondrial antibody (IgM)

    • Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis:
    • - Unknown cause of concentric "onion skin" bile duct fibrosis -> alternating strictures and dilation with "beading" of intra and extrahepatic bile ducts on ERCP
    • - P-ANCA (60% +)
  29. Acute pancreatitis leads to
    • DIC
    • ARDS
    • diffuse fat necrosis
    • hypocalcemia (calcium soap deposits)
    • pseudocyst formation
    • hemorrhage
    • infection
    • multiorgan failure
  30. Presentation of Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    • Abdominal pain radiating to back
    • Weight loss (malabsorption and anorexia)
    • Trousseau syndrome (Migratory thrombophlebitis- redness and tenderness on palpation of extremities)
    • Courvoisier's sign (obstructive jaundice with palpable gallbladder)
  31. Cimetidine
    Reversible blockade of H2 receptors -> dec H+ secretion by parietal cells

    • TOXICITY:
    • - P 450 inhibitor
    • - antiandrogenic effects (prolactin, gynecomastia, impotence)
    • - crosses blood brain barrier (confusion)
    • - crosses placenta
    • - decrease renal excretion of creatinine
  32. Misoprostol
    PGE1 analog

    • - increase production & secretion of gastric mucous barrier
    • - decrease acid production
    • - maintain patent ductus arteriosus
    • - induce labor/ abortion
  33. Sulfasalazine
    Sulfapyridine (antibacterial) + 5-aminosalicylic acid (anti-inflammatory)

    activated by colonic bacteria

    USED: crohns, ulcerative colitis

    • TOXICITY: reversible oligospermia and
    • skin reactions:
    • - erythema multiforme
    • - steven johnson syndrome
    • - exfoliative dermatitis
    • - toxic epidermal necrolysis
  34. Cardinal ligament in the female reproductive tract
    Cervix to side wall of pelvis

    Contains uterine vessels
  35. Innervation of male sexual response
    Erection- Parasympathetic via pelvic nerve

    Emission- Sympathetic via hypogastric nerve

    Ejaculation- visceral and somatic via pudendal nerve
  36. Oogensis arrest phase
    Meisosis I is arrested in Prophase for years until ovulation

    Meisosis II is arrested in Metaphase until fertilization
  37. hCG
    Produced in the syncytiotrophoblast of placenta

    • Maintains corpus leuteum by acting as LH until placenta makes estriol and progesterone
    • Detection of pregnancy (2 weeks in urine)
    • Elevated in pathologic states:
    • - hydatidiform moles
    • - choriocarcinoma
    • - gestational trophoblastic tumors
  38. Kallman syndrome
    • decrease synthesis of gonadotropin in the anterior pituitary
    • anosmia
    • lack of secondary sexual characteristics
  39. Follicular cyst of ovary
    • Distention of unruptured graafiain follicle.
    • Associated with hyperestrinism and endometrial hyperplasia
  40. Choriocarcinoma
    Malignant

    • Abnormal proliferation of both cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts
    • no villi are present

    • Tumor marker hCG
    • inc frequency of theca-lutein cysts
  41. Fibroma
    Stromal tumor

    • Bundles of spindle-shaped fibroblasts
    • Meigs syndrome- ovarian fibroma, ascites and hydrothorax
    • Pulling sensation in groin
  42. Invasive ductal carcinoma
    Firm, fibrous, rock hard mass with sharp margins and small glandular duct like cells.

    Worst and most invasive. Most common
  43. Treatment for Benign prostatic hyperplasia
    Terazosin (a1-antagonist w/ effects on blood vessels)

    tamsulosin (a1- antagonist w/ no effect on blood vessels)

    finasteride- 5 a reductase inhibitor
  44. Circumflex artery of the heart
    Supplies the posterior left ventricle
  45. Contractility and SV decrease with:
    • B blockade (dec cAMP)
    • Systolic heart failure
    • Acidosis
    • Hypoxia/hypercapnea
    • non-dihydropyridine
  46. What increases viscocity of blood
    • polycythemia
    • hyperproteinemic state
    • hereditary spherocytosis
  47. Left sternal border heartsounds
    • DIASTOLIC:
    • Aortic regurgitation
    • Pulmonic regurgitation

    • SYSTOLIC:
    • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  48. Rheumatic fever most common cardiac abnormality
    Mitral valve stenosis
  49. Phase 2 of the ventricular action potential
    Plateau- Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels balances K+ efflux

    Ca2+ influx triggers Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum and myocyte contraction
  50. Cardiac conduction speeds
    FASTEST TO SLOWEST

    • Purkinje system
    • Atrial muscle
    • Ventricular muscle
    • AV node

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview