Art 11 Post Classic Vocab

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Art 11 Post Classic Vocab
2012-10-18 13:38:04
Post Classic Vocab Art 11

Post Classic Pre Columbian Art
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  1. Ahuiltzotl
    Greatest of all Aztec rulers who succeeded his weak brother Tizoc and conquered lands all the way to the Guatemala border and brought most of Mexico under his control. For the first time since the fall of Tula there was in Mexico a single empire as great as or greater than that of the Toltecs. He also completed many projects during his reign, among them the rebuilding of the Great Temple dedicated in 1487.
  2. Amatl
    A form of paper made from the inner bark of fig trees that was used for most Aztec books and manuscripts. The fibers were soaked in water, beaten into separate thin strips and treated to create a smooth surface for writing.
  3. Alantean
    Describing a stone support for a building in the shape of a man.
  4. Atlantids
    Stone supports for a building in the shape of men
  5. Atlatl
    Wooden throwing-board for javelins, serving to lengthen the user's radius of reach.
  6. Axayocatl (1469 - 81)
    Aztec ruler who subdued neighboring Tlatelolco and substituted his military government there.
  7. Azcapotzalco
    A principle city of the west shore of Lake Texcoco that was defeated by the Aztecs and their alliance partners.
  8. Aztecs
    Also known as the Mexica or Tenochca, this nomadic, war-like group of Nahuatl speakers, after a period of wandering, settled and founded their capital Tenochtitlan on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1345.
  9. Aztlan
    The legendary island homeland of the Aztecs from which they derived their name.
  10. Bernal Diaz
    A Spanish conquistador who chronicled his experiences in the conquest of the New World.
  11. Cocoa Beans
    Chocolate beans that were used for currency by the Aztecs because they were so precious.
  12. Calmecac
    The school for priests located within the Templo Mayor at Tenochtitlan.
  13. Cempouhalli
    The 20 day names of the Aztec calendar, roughly equivalent to our month.
  14. Chacmool
    Stone figure of a recumbent human shown holding basins or platters on the abdomen. Found in Mexico and the Yucatan.
  15. Chapultapec
    City on the lakeside of Lake Texcoco from which a double aqueduct brought fresh water to Tenochtitlan.
  16. Chichmecs
    Wandering nomadic barbarian tribes who continuously moved southward from the more arid lands to the north.
  17. Chinampas
    A small artificial island made for gardening in the lakes of the Valley of Mexico and in some regions of the Yucatan peninsula.
  18. Cholula Polychrome
    The term used for the Mixtec pottery style which uses codex-style painting.
  19. Cire-perdue
    The lost-wax casting process.
  20. Coatepec
    The Serpent Mountain in Aztec mythology which was the home of Coatlique and the birthplace of Huitzilopochtli.
  21. Coatlicue
    The mother of Huitzilopochtli, Our Lady of the Serpent Skirt. She was the old goddess of the earth and mother of gods and men. Her husband was Tlaltecuhtli, a fanged toad who was the Great Lord Earth.
  22. Codex Mendoza
    An Aztec codex compiled in 1548 listing tribute and telling about Aztec life from year to year.
  23. Codex Nuttall
    A Mixtec genealogical book showing scenes from the life of Lady Three-Flint.
  24. Codex Vindobonensis
    A Mixtec book brought to Europe as a gift for King Manoel of Portugal that shows the founding of the Mixtecs including their original gods, ancestors, religious festivals, and first kingdoms.
  25. Codices
    Plural of codex or book.
  26. Colhuacan
    The primary city along Lake Texcoco at the coming of the Aztecs. It was founded by descendants of the Toltecs.
  27. Conceptual Art
    An art style which uses simplified customary conventions to express and idea, as opposed to perceptual art wwhich relies on what is actually seen.
  28. Consolidation
    The period during which the Aztecs, who had fled the oppression of the lord of Colhuacan, found refuge on an inland in Lake Texcoco and founded their capital Tenochtitlan, enlarging it with chinampas. By 1440 they dominated their surrounding neighbors.
  29. Coyolxuahqui
    The Moon Goddess, sister of Huitzilopochtli who was decapitated by him for decapitating their mother Coatlicue. This act symbolized the sacrificing of the moon and stars each morning by the rising sun.
  30. Cuiya
    The Mixtec term for the solar calendar of 365 days.
  31. Eedziya
    The Mixtec term for the Pre-columbian "century" of 52 years.
  32. Expansion and Conquest
    The Aztec's great moment in time which saw the rapid growth of Tenochtitlan, the flowering of Aztec art, and the expansion of their power and influence by conquest and tribute.
  33. Facade
    The front of a building facing the street or a courtyard.
  34. Fernan Cortez
    The Spanish conquistador who overthrew the Aztecs in 1521.
  35. Filigree
    A delicate, lacelike ornamental work of intertwined wire of gold or silver.
  36. Fray Bernardino Sahagun
    A Franciscan friar who, from 1558 to 1570, consulted native informants in central Mexico and compiled a great encyclopedia of native peoples in the Nahuatl language.
  37. Fret Mosaics
    An ornamental pattern of small, straight bars of individually cut stones intersecting at right angles and assembled in small bits to make a design.
  38. Huemac
    Legendary ruler of Tula who drove out his co-ruler Topilzin Quetzalcoatl.
  39. Huitzilopchtli
    The supreme deity of the Aztecs associated with sun, fire and the ruling lineage. He replaced earlier solar gods Xiuhtecuhtli and Tonatiuh. Sometimes he's identified with the Blue Tezcatlipoca, one of the first four gods born.
  40. Iconographic
    Recognizable images of people, things and situations.
  41. Ideographic
    The "shorthand" version of the iconographic using a symbol to convey an idea.
  42. Itzcoatl Ihuicamina
    The ruler of Tenochtitlan who, with his chief minister Tlacaelel, burned the old history books because they laid too much emphasis on barbarian origins of the Aztecs. He also attempted to destroy records of older, established kingdoms because they either left out the Aztecs as unworthy, or made frank references to their former condition.
  43. Lady 3-Flint
    The royal woman whose genealogy is mentioned in the Mixtec book known as the Codex Nuttall.
  44. Lord 8-Deer
    The Mixtec ruler whose genealogy is painted in the Mixtec book known as the Codex Nuttall
  45. Meanders
    Another name for the scroll motif or step fret.
  46. Merlons
    Seashell-like decorations atop a coatepantli wall.
  47. Mexica
    Also known as the Aztecs or Tenochca, this nomadic, war-like group of Nahuatl speakers, after a period of wandering, settled and founded their capital Tenochtitlan on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1345.
  48. Mitla
    The city built by the Mixtecs 30 miles east of Monte Alban which had a more introverted, private emphasis than pageant-oriented Monte Alban.
  49. Montezuma I
    The first Aztec king to begin the expansion of Aztec power by threatening the Mixtecs.
  50. Montezuma Xocoyotzin II
    Also known as 9 Angry Lord, he succeeded Ahuizotl as head of the Aztecs and was a fine ruler, great warrior, and inaugurated beautiful botanical gardens in which he tried to place every Mexican species of flower and tree. He added 43 towns to the Aztec empire.
  51. Nahuatl
    The language of the Aztecs and Toltecs.
  52. Phonetic
    The sounds or words in a language.
  53. Plinth
    A square block that rises vertically at the top of a balustrade which served as a base for a statue or brazier. It also served as a visual device creating the illusion of greater height.
  54. Quinternos
    Domino-like shapes with 5 dots that may refer to the 5 extra days in the year, the unlucky days the sun was powerless and might be shown as a dot.
  55. Repousse
    A metalworking technique in which the pattern is formed on thin metal by pushing shapes from the back or underside.
  56. Tenayuca
    Now in the suburbs of Mexico City, Tenayuca was a principle center for religious activity during the interlude between the fall of Tula and the rise of Tenochtitlan. Today its dual temple can still be seen.
  57. Tenochca
    Also known as the Mexica or Aztecs, this nomadic, war-like group of Nahuatl speakers, after a period of wandering, settled and founded their capital Tenochtitlan on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1345.
  58. Tenochtitlan
    The great Aztec capital, now Mexico City, which was founded in 1325 and enlarged with chinampas. It was divided into four quarters and at its heart was located the great Templo Mayor precinct which housed the great dual temple dedicated to Huiztilopochtli and Tlaloc.
  59. Texcoco
    A city on the eastern shore of the lake by the same name. Lake Texcoco was surrounded by cities which grew after the fall of Tula.
  60. Tezcatlipoca
    "The Smoking Mirror." One of the first four gods born, known as the Black Tezcatlipoca, he represented rulers, sorcerers and warriors. His smoking mirror was used for sorcery and necromancy. He appears to be the embodiment of change through conflict.
  61. The Burnt Palace
    A three-part building at the foot of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl (Temple of the Warriors) at Tula which is known for its benches decorated with low reliefs of warriors.
  62. Tlacaelel
    The chief minister of Tenochtitlan who, at the orders of his king Itzcoatl, burned the old history books because they laid too much emphasis on barbarian origins of the Aztecs. He also attempted to destroy records of older, established kingdoms because they either left out the Aztecs as unworthy, or made frank references to their former condition.
  63. Tlachtli
    Nahuatl term for the I-shaped ball-court used throughout Middle America.
  64. Tlahuizcalpantecutle
    Quetzalcoatl as the morning and evening star--the planet Venus.
  65. Tlaloc
    The god of rain and lightning. He is one of the most common deities and is often shown with goggled eyes and large, jaguar teeth. He is clearly part jaguar and it is possible that the rumblings of thunder were compared to the bellows of the jaguar.
  66. Tlatelolco
    The nearby sister city of Tenochtitlan which was its merchant center housing the great market at which items from all parts of the empire were bought and sold.
  67. Tollan
    Another name for Tula, the capital of the Toltec empire from 950 - 1150 C.E.
  68. Tonalamatl
    The 260-day ritual calendar of the Aztecs composed from the combination of 13 numbers and 20 day names.
  69. Tonalpohualli
    The Aztec term for the 260 day ritual calendar.
  70. Tonatiuh
    The sun god as shown in the center of the Aztec calendar stone. He was replaced by Huitzilopochtli. See Huitzilopochtli.
  71. Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl
    Co-ruler of Tula with Huemac who leaves in disgrace for the "land of the red and the black," probably Maya country.
  72. Tula
    The capital of the Toltec empire from 950 - 1150 C.E.
  73. Wandering (1168-1325)
    The Chichimec period during which the Aztecs followed their god Huitzilopochtli from their mythical homeland on a lake called Aztlan into the Valley of Mexico.
  74. Xipetotec
    The Pre-columbian deity, Our Lord the Flayed One, who personified agricultural renewal and symbolized the germinating seed. He's also known as the Red Tezcatlipoca, one of first four gods born.
  75. Xochimilco
    Located near Tenochtitlan, today chinampas can still be seen at Xochimilco. In Aztec times Xochimilco was the principal center of lapidary crafts.
  76. Xolotl
    One of the aspects of Quetzalcoatl, Xolotl represented the planet Venus. As a dog-headed monster, he was the sun's companion during its perilous journey through the death dog's realm at night.
  77. Zaachila
    A Mixtec city not far from Mitla.