Bio Aging Midterm Discussion papers and Aging patterns.txt

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rincrocci
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Bio Aging Midterm Discussion papers and Aging patterns.txt
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2012-10-18 14:12:39
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aging patterns and discussion articles
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  1. Istvan Szabo
    First to determine the Type III aging pattern, doing research on oak trees (theorized from Raymond Pearl)
  2. Alex Comfort
    Dog breeding studies: showed that lifespan increases in dog breeds with larger brain:body ratio
  3. Rajindal Sohal
    Showed that increase in metabolic activity, along with an increase in temperature causes increase in mortality rates in houseflies
  4. Weindruch & Walford
    • showed that reduced calorie diet in mice showed:
    • 1. Increase in % survival
    • 2. Decrease in body mass
    • 3. decrease in TUMOR mortality
  5. James Carey et. al
    • Carried out LARGEST study with MedFlys: showing NOT exhibiting Gompertz pattern.
    • Flies had higher survival rates as age INCREASED
  6. Muggleton & Danielli
    discovered that immortal amoebas could be transformed to 'spanned' amoebas with NUTRIENT DEPRIVATION, even briefly
  7. Thomas and Dennis Nyberg
    • Showed Vitamin E supplementation for paramecium cells increases lifespan
    • Data showed a Type I Gompertzian slope curve
  8. Hamilton and Mestler
    • Showed castrated males vs intact had more higher life expectancy.
    • Also showed mentally retarded males exhibited hyperbolic pattern of age-related mortality increase
  9. Westendorp and Kirkwood
    • Looked at British aristocracy
    • showed that women age of first child birth and # of children correlate with longevity of females
    • Longer you wait until first child, and if only have 1 child: show longest longevity
  10. Massie, et al. (p601)
    • Using Drosophila melanogaster, show the increase in Vitamin A consumption is correlated to increase in longevity
    • Too much Vit A can be detrimental, however, causing a decrease in longevity
  11. Thomas dissertation related to redundancy and damage rate:
    • gene redundancy R: Determines how RAPID mortality rate Increases
    • redundancy may improve cell survivorship by reducing rate of loss of genetic info
    • small damage rate u (mew) and large redundancy = increase in survival
  12. Gompertz pattern
    • qx= qo (e)a(x)^n with N=1
    • Type I:
    • Linear curve on a semi-logarithmic mortality plot
    • Concave slope on double log plot
    • delta ln qx is POSITIVE and CONSTANT, so doubledelta q is ZERO (inverse Gomp w/type III shows neg delta lnqx)
    • Declining life expectancy with age
    • Constant MRDT with age
  13. Hyperbolic Pattern
    • qx=qo(e)a(x)^n
    • Type I:
    • Mortality INCREASES at accelerating rate
    • ConCAVE slope for semi and double log plot
    • delta lnqx is POSITIVE and INCREASING
    • Declining life-expectancy with age
    • Declining MRDT with age
  14. Weibull Pattern
    • qx=qo(x+1)^n with n > 0
    • ConVEX slope on semi-log plot
    • Linear on double log plot
    • delta lnqx Positive and DECREASING, double delta lnq is NEGATIVE
    • Declining life-expectancy with age
    • Increasing mortality rate doubling time w/age
  15. Logistic Pattern
    • lx = 1-(1-(1-u)^x)^R
    • Type I:
    • Slowest rate of senescence
    • Convex slope on semi-logarithmic (and double) mortality plot
    • Declining life expectancy with age
    • Increasing MRDT with age
    • ONLY with NO upper limit to Maximum lifespans
  16. Kapitanov and Aksenov
    • In stationary phase, immortal bacteria (Prokaryotes) exhibited REDUCED viability & INCREASED mortality
    • Followed Gompertz pattern: decrease in life expectancy with age
    • bacteria termed immortal b/c although they have rate of aging, they can sustain damage as long as their growth rates are high
  17. Type I vs II vs III
    • type I: Prob of death (qx) continuously INCREASING, with Life expectancy (ex) going DOWN
    • type II: qx and ex stay SAME
    • type III: probability of death (qx) DECREASES
  18. dx
    • # of prop. of ppl dying from age x to x+t
    • dx=lx - l(x+t)
  19. qx (probability of death)
    qx=dx/lx
  20. Lx
    • avg # of prop. of ppl surviving from age x to x+t
    • Lx= (lx + l(x+t))/2
  21. Tx
    • Total # of organism-age-intervals in lifetable
    • Tx=sum of Lx (Lx + L(x+t) + L(x+2t)...)
  22. ex (life expectancy)
    ex = (Tx)(t) / (lx)
  23. lx
    # of prop. of ppl surviving at age x
  24. x
    age interval
  25. t
    time interval b/w survival measurements

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