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Analyzing your audience
The better you know your audience, the more likely you will persuade them.
Who is your primary audience? What is your relationship with the audience? How will the audience react? What does the audience already know? What is unique about the audience?
How to apply Aristotles persuasion principles?
- Ethos: an appeal based on credibility
- Pathos: an appeal based on emotion
- Logos: an appeal based on logic
Ethos: Appeal based on creditibiliy
Discuss your background upfront. show example sof your works, provide references. The more the audience connects the more they trust you. (Identify with famous celebrities like SPCA)
PathosL Appeal based on Emotion
Stories of tragedy and adorable moments. Use vivid language and dynamic delivery
Logos: Apeal based on logic
- some evidence and reasoning works best.
- Fact: indisputably true
- Inference: Probably true
- Opinion: possibly true
- Factual data is more persuasive.
Short persuasive message opening
- Direct plan - present the major idea first for USA
- - writing to more senior-level people who may not read the entire message
- -audience predisposed to listening to the entire message
- - idea does not require strong persuasion
- - reader prefers direct approach
- - the idea is long an complex and reader will get bored with a long text.
Short messages using the indirect plan (opening)
- If reader resists plan.
- - a employee who reports to you who will resist plan
- - outside the org, who will resist
- - you know your reader prefers the indirect plan
- Avoid disclosing the purpose imed.
- -INTERESTING opening with an interesting question (rhetorical) gets reader thinking about topic. Yes or no questions with obvious answers wont work. Unusual fact may work.
- RELEVENT: must be close to topic. Risk losing goodwill if off topic. Confusion sets in
- SHORT: one sentence opening paragraph. Few readers have patience to read long introductions.
Justifying your idea or request
- Provide a variety of convincing evidence. focus on strongest supporting points: mix facts and stats, expert opinion, and examples. Be specific, logical, and resonable. Avoid emotionalism, obvious flattery, insincerity and exaggeration.
- Bad: Moving our plant to Norfolk would result in considerable savings.
- Good: Moving our plant to Norfolk would save nearly $175,000 annually
- - Favors require persuasion because the reader gets nothing in return.
Dealing with Obstacles
- Identify obvious audience objections ahead of time and prepare a counterargument to show that your request is reasonable despite these concerns.
- -include in mid paragraph and the same paragraph as benefits.
- give a direct statement to motivate action late in the msg after most of the background info and reader benefits have been thoroughly covered. Use compliments only if sincere. Avoid weak statements: if you don't want to do this we understand.
- Good: We have only selected 5 firms to participate. We chose yours because of your 24 yr experience.
- -keep resonable
Check list for Short Persuasive messages
- Determine how to start the msg:
- -Direct plan
- -Indirect plan
- Justify your Idea or request
- --major part of msg to justifying/background evidence
- --Use facts and stats, expert opinion, and exmples for support
- --Use an objective, logical, resonable, and sincere tone
- --Present evidence in terms of either direct or infirect reader benefits
- Deal with obstables
- --dont ignore objections/ address them
- --subordinate obstacles by position and amnt of space devoted to topic
- Ask Confidently for Action
- --State or restate specific idea or request late in msg after benefits have been discused.
- --make desired action clear, use confident tone, no apologies or excusses
- --Enf on a forward looking note stressing reader benefits.
AIDA plan (sales letter)
Attention, interest, desire, action
Sales letter: Central Selling Theme
Emphasize one major reader benefit that you introduce early on and emphasize it thru the letter. E2=0 If you emphasize everything, you get nothing.
Sales letter: Gaining readers attention
- solicited and unsolicited letters (prospecting letters/aka junk mail or spam). Must grab attention in beginning lines.
- Good: What is the difference between exravagance and luxury?
- -keep to one sentence.
- -must not sound like a scam
Sales letter: Creating interest and building desire: Appeal based on creditibiliy
- Opening sentence should be related to product with an easy transition to features and reader benefits.
- Interpreting features: Devote several paragraphs to intpreting the products features.
- -Marketers refer to the benefit as a "derived benefit" (selling exclusivity)
Sales letter: Creating interest and building desire: Using Vivid Language and Graphics
- Catchy name and bold graphics create interest
- - Use action verbs when talking about the products features and benefits. Use colorful adjectives and adverbs and postive language, stressing what your product is, rather than what it is not.
- BAD: a serving out baked potato chipes doesn't have high calories like the original chips.
- GOOD: Our baked potato chopes have 140 calories per servicng - 40% less than the original chips.
Sales letter: Creating interest and building desire: Using Objective, Ethical Language
- Be specific, objective evidence. Avoid generalities, unsupported superlatives and claimes and too many or too strong adjectives and adverbs. Avoid stating what your product is not.
- BAD: at $795, the sherwood moped is the best buy on the market.
- GOOD: The May issue of Independant Consumer rated the $795 Sherwood moped the years best buy.
Sales letter: Creating interest and building desire: Mentioning Price
If price is central to the selling theme, introduce it early and emphasize it often. If not subordinate it. Present the price in small units and comparing it to a familiar object may soften the expense.
Sales letter: Creating interest and building desire: Referring to Encolosures
- sometimes, an enclosure explains your product or service or inspires action. If you include an enclosure, subordinate your reference to it, and refer to some specific item in the enclosure to increase the likelihood of it being read.
- BAD: I have enclosed a sales brochure on this product.
- GOOD: Take a look at our clearance items on page 7 of the enclosed brochure.
Sales letter: Creating interest and building desire: Motivating action
Delay making tour specific requestion until late in the letter. Make easy, toll free #, website... High end: visit dealership, call for more info. Prompt action by offering a gift, Consifer putting important marketing on the post script (PS)
Checklist for sales letters:
- Select a central selling theme
- Gain the Readers attn:
- -opening brief, interesting and original, avoid misleading and obvious statements
- -use any of these openings: rethorical question, thought provoking statement, unusual fact, current event, anecdote, direct challenge
- -introduce or lead up to the central selling theme in opening
- -if the letter is a response to a cust inquiry, express apprectiation and introduce selling theme.
- Create Interest and Build Desire
- -make intro of the product follow naturally from the attn getter
- -Intepret the features of the product, instead of just describing the features, show how the reader benefits. Let reader picture owning, using and enjoying
- -use action packed, positive language and engaging graphics. Provide objective, convincing evidence to support your clains, specific facts and figures, independent product review, endorsements,
- -Continue to stress the central theme throughout
- -subordinate price unless the price is the central theme. State price in small terems, in a long sentence, or in a sentence that also talks about benefits.
- Motivate Action
- -make the desire action clear and easy to take
- -ask confidently, avoid the hesitant
- -encourage prompt action, but avoid the hard sell
- -end your letter with a reminder of a reader benefit
Writing and responding to negative customer feedback
Best handled in person, or with a phone call. Service recovery - ideally turning an upset customer into a loyal one.
Writing Customer Complaint letters and online reviews,.
To present yourself as a credible customer: consider the indirect style. Give specific evidence, maintain a calm objective tone,
Responding to negative feedback
Respond to online feedback promptly to preserve the companies reputation. Show appreciation for feedback. Reinforce positive aspects of the review. Address negative aspects directly, invite the customer to experience your product or service again.