Nutrition Exam II.txt

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janet_0923
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Nutrition Exam II.txt
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2012-12-07 02:15:45
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nutrition
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  1. Other term for food energy
    • kcal
    • calories
    • kilojoules
  2. Major Nutrients of fruits and vegetables
    • vitamin C
    • fiber
    • vitamin A
  3. convert # to kg
    # /2.2 = kg
  4. factors affecting BMR
    • genetic body composition
    • body condition
    • gender
    • hormonal secretion
    • sleep
    • age
    • body temprature
    • nigitin from smoking
    • faster or crash diets
  5. the major gland affects BMR
    thyroid
  6. hypothyroidism
    decreasing BMR so decrease food intake
  7. hyperthyroidism
    increase BMR so increase food intake
  8. age group affect BMR
    • infancy
    • childhood
    • puberty
    • pregnancy
    • lactation increase BMR

    BMR Begins to decrease in age 25
  9. activity expenditure is determined by
    • body weight
    • intensity
    • duration
  10. def. of Thermic Effect of Food
    production of heat that occurs as result of digestion, absorption, and metabolism
  11. ideal body fat for female
    15% - 22%
  12. ideal body fat for male
    12% - 18%
  13. fat deposition influences health
    apple vs. pear shape
  14. quick standard for female
    • 5 ' = 100#
    • addional inch = 5# additional
  15. quick standard female 5'5
    100# + 25# = 125#
  16. quick standard for male
    • 5 ' = 105#
    • each additional inch = 6 # additional
  17. quick standard male 6'
    • 1' = 12 inches
    • 105# + 72# = 177#
  18. cause of obesity
    increase technology + increase junk food = increase obesity
  19. 3500 kcal = 1 #
  20. lose weight fast lose
    muscle
  21. lose weight slowly lose
    fat
  22. ideal weight lose
    0.5 - 2 # per week
  23. the most quality way to achieve weight reduction
    • eat quality food
    • increase activity
    • decrease food intake
  24. Dieter must be retrained into
    a new set of eating patterns
  25. Hunger and Satiety are controlled by
    hypohalamus of the brain
  26. def. of under weight
    85% or below 85% of healthy body weight
  27. Q: 100# is the healthy body weight, under weight?
    equal or less than 85#
  28. BMR
    • measures the minimum amount of energy needed to carry on the Vital Body Processes
    • respiration
    • circulation
    • sythesis of glands
    • hormones
    • muscular contraction
    • elesticity
  29. identical twins seperated birth have the same body type in adulthood
  30. the body's need for energy
    • BMR
    • Activity
    • Thermic effect of food
  31. bomb calorimeter
    1 kcal the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 Celsius
  32. thermic effect of food
    10% of BMR and Activity
  33. 2000 kcal with 10% kcal from protein, how many kcal are from protein? And how many grams protein in this diet?
    10% x (2000 kcal) = 200 protein kcal

    200 protein kcal / 4 =  50g protein
  34. how many grams of protein in a 2000 kcal diet
    • 50g
    • 200 kcal from protein food
    • 200 / 4 = 50
  35. major nutrients of fruit and vegetables
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin C
    • Fiber
  36. other term for food energy
    • kcal
    • calories
    • kilojoules
  37. Meat/ beans group low in ______
    low in Ascrobic Acid (Vitamin C) and Calcium
  38. how much the U.S. population meet the goal of periment
    1 %
  39. most of body water is
    Intracellular
  40. Water makes up about how many percent of total body weight
    60 %
  41. Water makes up about how many percent of lean body mass ( muscle)
    70%
  42. Water Intoxication
    occurs when Large amount of water is consumed Without enough electrolytes to maintain water balance so Edema may occur
  43. Edema
    • increase water retention
    • decrease urination
  44. Functions of Water
    • Solvent of Nutrients
    • Growth Facilitator
    • Catalyst for many biological reactions
    • Lubricant of Joints
    • Temperature Regulator
    • Source of Trace Element
    • Need Water to make urine to excrete waste
  45. what nutrients found in hard water
    Calcium & Magnesium
  46. End products of metabolism are
    • carbon dioxide
    • energy
    • Water
  47. Water is eliminated from the body through
    • urine
    • feces
    • skin
    • lung
    • digested juice
  48. Vigorous Activity involved
    large water losses from the body
  49. recommendation for vigorous activity
    1 cup water per 15 mins
  50. the younger the person the more water is required
  51. the percentage of body water turnover for infants is Greater than
    for adults
  52. 1 L water per 1000 kcal
    2 L water per day ( 2000 kcal )
  53. electrolytes maintain
    water balance
  54. what to eat if become dehydrogenate
    • fruits
    • salted food
    • water
  55. Sources of Sodium (Na)
    • Salt (major source)
    • baking soda, MSG
    • food and water with naturally occuring sodium
  56. Sodium present in
    extracellular fluids
  57. Functions of Sodium
    keeps water from leaving the blood and entering the cell
  58. ideal intake of sodium
    b/w 1 - 3 g per day
  59. average U.S. sodium diet
    3 - 7 g per day
  60. 1 tsp salt
    2000 mg ( 2 g ) sodium
  61. Potassium present in
    intracellular fluids
  62. Functions of Potassium
    • catalyst in many biological reactions
    • maintaining axid/base balance
    • transmission of nerve impluses
    • release of insulin from pancreas
    • *treament of hypertension
    • *main water balance
    • *main osmotic pressure
  63. what is most critical in treament of HTN ( hypertention)
    • decrease in Na increase in K
    • Na & K
  64. Na & K both
    • maintain water balance
    • critical foe hypertention treament
    • maintain osmotic pressure
  65. requirements for Potassium
    2 g per day
  66. metabolism of Flourine
    absorbed from the stomach
  67. Food sources of Flourine
    • Flourine added to water supply
    • mackerel (fish)
  68. Functions of Flourine
    • gives protection from the bone disease ( osteopathy)
    • gives protection against tooth decay
    • too much Flourine = browm motting on teeth
  69. too much Flourine
    results browm motting on teeth
  70. Functions of Chloride
    in the stomach as part of digested juices (HCL)
  71. minerals maintain water balance
    Na & K
  72. three compartments of mineral's maintenance of water balance
    • intravascular
    • interextracellular
    • intracellular
  73. supplements of Ca
    • Calcium Carbonate
    • Calcium Citrate
  74. Calcium provides rigidity in
    bones and teeth
  75. Functions of Calcium
    • Bone formation along with phosphorus, flourine, magnesium
    • blood clooting
    • growth
    • catalyst for biological reaction
    • tooth formation
  76. Bone Formation
    • Ca calcium
    • F flourine
    • Mg magnesium
    • P phosphorus
  77. Factors enhance Ca absorption
    • Vitamin D
    • acidity of the digestive mass
    • lactose
  78. Elderly are not at risk for
    decreasing Ca absorption by secretin acidity excess stomach acid
  79. Ca and P ratio 1:1 / 1:2
    enhance filling bones healthplication
  80. Weight baring exercise can reverse
    osteoporosis
  81. Factors depressing Ca absorption
    • oxalic acid (spinach, chocolate)
    • phytic acid (fiber)
  82. oxalic acid
    • spinach
    • chocolate
  83. phytic acid
    fiber
  84. RDA Ca intake
    • Adult: 1000 mg per day (800 mg per day before)
    • Postmenopausal women: 1200 - 1500 mg per day
  85. Ca adult per day
    1000 mg
  86. Ca post menopausal women per day
    1200 - 1500 mg
  87. bone loss begins around age
    35
  88. bone loss accelerates after
    menopause
  89. Food Sources of Ca
    • milk, yogurt, cheese
    • salmon
    • sardines
    • broccoli
    • almond
    • kala
  90. Milk is high in Ca low in Fe & vitamin C
  91. Sulfur found in
    cabbage family vegetables ( cabbage, brussel sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower )
  92. Sulfur contains allyl sulfur
    which decrease risk of cancer
  93. decrease risk of cancer
    S
  94. calculate BMR

    Male:
    Female:
    • Male: 1 * ___kg * 24°
    • Female : 0.9 * ___kg * 24°
  95. 1). A man weights 110 lb, calculate his BMR
    2). A women weights 110 lb, calculate her BMR
    首先一定要把 lb 换成 kg 才能算

    • 1). 110lb / 2.2 =50 kg
    •       1 * 50 * 24° = 1200 kcal

    • 2). 110lb /2.2 =50 kg
    •       0.9 * 50 * 24° = 1080 kcal
  96. def. of Osteoporosis
    bone mass or amount is diminished but is of normal composition and the bone can breake unprovoked 
  97. Osteoporosis creates spontaneous fractures of the ______________ 3个
    • hips
    • vertebrae (spine)
    • wrists
  98. cause of Osteoporosis
    • long standing dietary inadequacy
    • poor utilization or absorption
    • excrete  more Ca (Alcohol cause more Ca excretion)
  99. Osteomalacia known as adult _____, and low level of _____
    adult ricket 

    Vitamin D
  100. Phosphorus (P) is required for all ATP reactions
    ADP + P = ATP (Adenosine triphosphate)
  101. what transpot lipid by making fat more soluble in the blood?
    Phosphorus lipids
  102. where we can find Phosphorus (P)?
    coke, 7up, roast beef, and milk
  103. soda disrupts the Ca / P ration which inhibits(decrease ) Ca absorption  (  鸡蛋可乐)
  104. Magnesium is absorbed on the bone surface (the 4 minerals involved in bone formation are ______________)
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Flourine
    • Magnesium
  105. Sources of Magnesium
    fish, nuts, soybeans, and spinach
  106. def. of Obesity
    20% above healthy body weight

    • ex: 150 lb (normal) x 20% = 30 lb. (exceed weight)
    •      150 lb + 30 lb =180 lb. (obese)
  107. Thermic Effect of Food 消耗最少的热量
    BMR 消耗最多的热量
  108. fat deposition influences health (2个体型)
    apple vs. pear shape (apple shape 比较危险, 因为大多数的器官都在上半身)

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