-the buildup of of smaller molecules into larger ones
(Example: base ball players use anabolic steroids which build up the complex protiens needed to make their muscle cells larger.)
Energy is stored in bonds; this is endergonic
consume ATP and release waste energy as heat
What are the two components involved on the process of Metabolism
What is Catabolism
The breakdown of large molecules into smaller ones
Energy is released from bonds; this is exergonic(energy is extracted from bonds)
Catabolic reactions create ATP and relase waste eneryas heat
What is ATP's central roll in Metabolism?
Food from the diet are broken down into aminio acids, sugares and fatty acids
The bonds in those molecules are broken to create energy, which is stored as ATP
ATP is then ued to make cellular stuctures which are made of amino acids, sugars, and fatty acids
What is the procces of releasing energy from chemical bonds?
How is energy released from ATP?
When we need energy we break one phosphate off the end of ATP creating ADP(Adenosine diphosphate)
This realeses a small packet of energy that the cell uses to fuel metabolic processes.
Food energy can turn ADP back into ATP
Which organ systems interact to maintain enery Homeostasis?
Digestive system - absorbs nutrients from food
Respiratory system -brings O2 in , blows CO2 out
Circulatory system -brings nutients and O2 to cells, carries waste & CO2 away.
Excretory system rids body of waste -urea from proteins in urine, and other wastes
What i the starting material for cellular energy production?
What is the ultimate product of Catabolism?
ATP- the energy currency of the cell
What two acids are major players in metabolism?
What represents a metabolic dead end?
A bucket or shovel for two carbon molecules
Coenzyme A(CoA)Two carbon carrier
what is Co Enzyme A?
A sulfer containing molecule that acts as a carbon carrier
the two carbon units are acetate groups
The fact that only two carbon units can fit into the Kreb Cycle "furnace" is an important feature to keep in mind
What are Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH)
and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)?
These two cofactors are not consumed in metabolic reactions
They serve as hydrogen buckets carring hydrogen atoms to where they are needed
Cellular Respiration that is anaerobic mening it is without ____
and creates _____ ATP per glucose molecule is called______.
oxygen, two, Glycolysis(sugar breaking)
Where does glycolysis take place?
In the cytoplasm
Does not need nitochondria
One glucose molecule is converted into two molecules ov pyruvic acid
Four ATP are made but 2 are consumed fro a net gain of 2 ATP per glucose
When can aerobic respiration take place?
when oxygen is plentiful
Aerobic respiration produces
32-34 net ATP molecules per glucose molecule (the number depends on the efficencey of the process).
True or False: if oxygen is present, pyruvate is fed into the aerobic respritory pathway.
what happens when oxygen is absent from cellular respiration?
Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid, a metabolic end
When lactic acid builds up as a result of anaerobic metabolism the cell becomes more acidic.
the cells metabolism is rendered less efficient( a contition called Lactic acidosis)
true or false : Lactic acid buildup does not interfere with muscle strength during exercise.
The steps of Aerobic Respiration
Before entering The Krebs cycle, pyruvic acid loses on carbon in the form of CO2. The resulting two carbon molecule is attached to tha carrier, making acetyle CoA
As the two carbon molecule enters the Krebs cycle, the CoA carrier is lost and a six carbon molecule is formed .
Curing the Krebs cycle the two carbons are lost as CO2 and the equivalent of one ATP is formed from ADP and phosphate. Also hydrogens are transfered to three molecules of NAD+ and on Molecule of FAD, making three NADHs and one FADH2
The Krebs cycle is also called ________ and _________.
the citric acid cycle and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
How does the Krebs Cycle operate?
it operates inga circular fashon, adding and subtracting carbons and giving off electrons as a side product.
These electrons are carried by cofactors called FADH2 and NADH so they may be used in the electron transsport chain
How does Mitochondrial Electron Transport work?
NADH and FADH2 bring hydrogen atoms to the electron transport chain
The H+ ions (protons)are stripped away and dumped between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes
The electrons are strippe3de and used to play keep-away
Finally, protons are allowed to run down their concentration gradient to drive a "turbine" that generates ATP
The Mitochondrial electron transport is what type of system?
Give an overview of Mitochondrial Respiration
Glucose is fed into the system
Glycolysis ( doesn't use oxygen) gives 2 net ATP
Next step needs oxygen: one glucose molecule makes 2 acetate groups (carried by CoA) and 2 CO2
Acetyl-CoA feeds Krebs cycle- makes CO2 and cofactors
Cofactors feed electron transport chain- Wheel driven by H+"stream" water and ATP produced
When the mitochondrion separates protons(H+) from electrons (e-), it creates __________ energy in the sme way that a dam represents _______ energy of water higher than its natural level.
We can release the potential energy in mitochondria which creates __________ energy by allowing _______ to run "downhill"(down their concentration gradient) and placing a "turbine"(the ATP synthase) in the stream of protons.
Kinetic energy, protons
Where do the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain take place.
In the Mitochondria
Excess glucose that is not needed for cellular metabolism is converted to _________ and stored in the ____and ____.
Glycogen, liver, muscle
When energy is needed glycogen is broken down to its ___________________ which are then available to provide energy.
Gluconeogenesis-pyruvate--glucose(making new glucose)
Energy surplus stored as glycogen
Energy needs met rapidlyby glycoigen breakdown
Which amino group is a major component of Urine?
Some amino acids cannot be made in any case and must be part of the human diet, these are called:
Essential Amino acids
What are the eight essential amino acids that must be part of the human diet to maintain health?
isoleucine, keucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
Humans need about 2000 Cal per day
Glycogen stores used first
then fat stores utilized
In diabetes, carbohydrate metabolism is "broken"
Diabetics cannot utilize glucose for energy
This results in ketosis and Metabolic acidosis
-Ketone bodies from fatty acid metabolism
-acidosis from b-oxidation.
what is diabetes mellitus ?
This occurs when the cells cannot metaboliz glucose. Instead they turn to fat stores as and energy source.
How Mitocondrial inefficency lead to free radical formation?
Mitochondria manage electrons
Free radicals are unpaired electrons(mismanaged electrons)
Free radicals damage lipids in mitochondria
Damaged mitochondria dont work as efficiently
More electrons become mismanaged
what are some common free radicals?
Superoxide, hydroxide, and peroxinitrite
True or False: Formation of free radicals is an important trigger for a process of programmed cell death.