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ability of the body to protect itself fromforeign substances and cells, including disease-causing agents.
Body overreacting to an allergy
immune response to substances that usually are not recognized as foreign.
severe systemic form of allergic reaction involving bronchiolar constriction, impaired breathing, vasodilation, and a rapid drop in blood pressure with a threat of of circulatory failure
List the 3 major functions of the Lymph System.
- 1- absorb excess tissue fluid and return it to the bloodstream
- 2- absorb fats associated with proteins
- 3- defense against pathogen
Lymph Vessels ; S&F
- S: WBC's and matrix fluid called lymph
- F: to return excess tissue fluid and transport WBC's for defense
WBC'S ; S&F
- S: Large blood cells that have a nucleus
- F: Fight infection and an important part of the immune system
Red Bone Marrow ; F
F: make WBC's
Thymus Gland ; F
F: holds 95% of lymphocytes
Lymph Nodes ; S&F
- S: small oval structures all along lymph vessels
- F: filled with specialized lymphocytes (WBC's)
Spleen ; S&F
- S: filled with white pulp containing lymphocytes and red pulp
- F: lymphocytes fight pathogens/infection, red pulp filters blood
What does the first line of defense consist of?
Chemical and Physical barriers
List the 4 physical barriers and how they work
- 1- skin - physical protection barrier
- 2- tears, saliva and urine - flush out microbes
- 3- mucous membranes - line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts
- 4- resident bacteria - normal flora that inhabit the body use available nutrients and space thus preventing
List the 3 chemical barriers and how they work.
- 1- secretion of the oil glands
- 2- lysozyme found in saliva, tears, and sweat
- 3- acidic pH fo the stomach and vagina
What three things does the second line of defense include?
- 1. Phagocytic WBC's
- 3. Protective proteins
Phagocytic WBC’s – what do they do?
cell eaters - attacking soldiers
Inflammation – List the symptoms and explain what causes it.
- Redness - histamine is released which causes capillaries to get bigger
- Heat - increased bloos flow, increased temperature
- Swelling - increased blood flow also brings more WBC's
- Pain - associated with all of the above
Protective Proteins – What do they do?
Binds to cells in area; causes release histamine, attracts phagocytes, forms a membrane attack complex that pokes holes in some pathogens that causes them to burst
What is the third line of defense?
List and define the two types of immunity.
- 1. Passive immunity- individual is given prepared antibodies against a particular antigen
- 2. Active immunity- individual's body makes antibodies against a particula antigen
Explain how active immunity works. (antibody-mediated immunity)
The individual's body makes antibodies against a particular antigen. This can happen through natural infection or through immunization involving vaccines
Explain in general what is going on in both an allergic response and tissue rejection.
An allergy is a hypersensitivity to harmless substances such as pollen, food, or animal hair. In tissue rejection occurs when tissue that is not recognized as “self” tissue is attacked.
List and describe the 2 major disorders of the immune system.
- Autoimmune disease - WBC's attack the body's own cells as if they were enemies.
- Immunodeficiency disease - the immune system is compromised and thus unable to defend the body against disease.
- any disease causing organism
- microscopic organism
- study of microscopic organisms
- infectious particle consisting of nucleic acids and a protein coat
- slow-acting, virtually indestructible infectious proteins that cause brain disease in mammals
- general outbreak
- global epidemics
- are those that suddenly become apparent
- A microscopic single-celled organism, including the bacteria and cyanobacteria, that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
- single celled
- A resistant asexual spore that develops inside some bacteria cells
- an ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact: a larger host and smaller symbiont
- Either of two organisms that live in symbiosis with one another
- An animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives
- an organism called a parasite harms but does not kill its host
- both symbiotic organisms benefit
Why are viruses not alive?
- 1- Viruses are not cells
- 2- Lack the structures and found in cells
- 3- Can't reproduce or metabolize outside of host cell
Describe the structure of a virus.
Infectious particle consisting of nucleic acids and a protein coat.
How are viruses important to us?
- 1- pathogens - disease cuased by viral infections affect humans, agricultural crops, and livestock worldwide
- 2- Biomolecular research - a) DNA function/processes, b) disease, and c) gene manipulation/gene transfer
Describe how viruses make more of themselves (replicate).
- 1.Virus enters organism
- 2.Virus binds to cell
- 3.Either injects nucleic acid or entire virus enters (endocytosis)
- 4.Viral genes reprogram cells’ DNA to make more copies of viral genes and viral proteins (all the materials come from the host cell)
- 5.Viral genes and proteins spontaneously form new proteins
- 6.100’s to 1,000’s exit cell àdamages or destroys it
- 7.Each new virus free to infect other cells
- 8.Viral symptoms often the response to this
What should you never take to fight a viral infection?
What are the 2 main viruses affecting the entire human species yearly?
- 1- Rhinovirus – common cold
- 2- Influenza Virus - Flu
What 2 things can be done to keep from getting sick from a virus?
- 1- prevent them from getting in
- 2- vaccinate
Give examples of each of them and explain how they work.
- 1- prevent them from getting in - washing hands - kills the bacteria
- 2- vaccincate - stimulates antibodies of a particular virus
Describe the structure of a bacterium.
- 1- prokaryotes
- 2- unicellular
- 3- very small
Explain why bacteria are highly adaptive? (Mutate/change quickly)
prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission, and offspring cells are generally identical. Can divide every 1-3 hours. Mutation rates are low, but becuase of reproduction rate mutations can accumulate rapidly in a population.High genetic diversity from mutations allows for rapid evolution.
List, describe, and give examples of the two ways in which bacteria are ecologically important.
- 1. nutrient recyclers - function as decomposers, sometimes increase the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium for plant growth
- 2. ecological interactions (symbiosis) - ecological relationship in which two species live in close contact.
Be able to list and explain at least 2 ways in which bacteria are scientifically important to humans.
- 1. Experiments have led to important advances in DNA technology.
- 2. Bacteria can now be used to make plastics3. Principal agents in bioremediation
From a human disease standpoint – why are bacteria so important?
After acquiring the bacteria the WBC’s in the human body develop immunity to the bacteria.
Be able to list at least 4 common bacteria and/or bacteria caused illnesses.
Be able to explain how bacteria become antibiotic resistant.
One bacterium is generally reistant >lives>reproduces> only those survive>now the only bacteria in your body is resistant
List and explain the common causes of antibiotic resistance.
- Food products (meat, milk, and eggs)
- Household products (soaps, cleaners, etc)
How are bacteria economically important? (Positive and negative)
- Positive – nutrient recyclers = life, mutualism – us and agriculture, foods produced with them, bioremedial affects
- Negative – food protection (preservatives), pathogen costs