Card Set Information
Chapter 9 biology
- movement of molecules or ions from high to low concentration
Epiglottis ; S&F
: elastic cartilage;
F:covers the voice box to make sure food is routed into the esophagus.
– membrane that encloses each lung
– sensory cells that sense the drop on pH
Explain why the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system are so inter-linked.
CV system distributes O2-rich blood throughout the body, and the respiratory system replaces O2-poor blood with O2-rich blood via the lungs.
Describe the overall structure (s) and functions(s) of the Respiratory System.
S: The respiratoty tract (nose to lungs and back);
: gas exchange (O2 and CO2) filters incoming air, maintains blood pH and bodytemperature, produces sound
List in order the parts of the respiratory tract – air flow.
Nose – pharynx – larynx – trachea – bronchus – bronchioles -- alveoli
Nose ; S&F
S: openings to the pharynx;
: allow air in and out
Pharynx ; S&F
: Funnel-shaped cavity commonly called the“throat”;
: Passageway for air, First line of defence - tonsils
Larynx ; S&F
: Triangular, cartilaginous structure, 2 vocalcords, Opening in the middle;
: passes air between the pharynx and trachea, Createssound (voice)
Trachea ; S&F
: A tube of connective tissue and smooth muscle(windpipe), Lined with cilia and mucus;
: connects the larynx with the bronchi, Filter - keep the lungs clean
Bronchi ; S&F
S: Startswith two main bronchi;
F: passage ofair from the trachea into the lungs
Bronchioles ; S&F
: about 1mm in diameter with thinner walls;
: passage of air
Alveoli ; S&F
: elongated air sacs;
F: gas excahnge by diffusion
List and describe what happens during the 2 phases of ventilation (breathing).
1. Inspiration – an active process of inhalation that brings air into the lungs
2. Expiration – usually a passive process of exhalation that expels air from the lungs
List and discuss the 2 types of breathing control that the body has.
: Respiratory control center in the brain (medulla oblongata) sends out nerve impulses to contract muscle for inspiration, involuntary
: 2 sets of chemoreceptors sense the drop in pH: one set is in the brain and the other in the circulatory system
Upper respiratory tract infections:
Sinusitis – blockage of sinuses
Otitis media – infection of the middle ear
Tonsillitis – inflammation of the tonsils
Laryngitis – infection of the larynx
Lower respiratory tract infections:
Pneumonia - infection of the lungs
Tuberculosis - bacterial infection
Pulmonary fibrosis - inhaled particles
Emphysema - alveoli are damaged
Asthma – bronchial tree becomes irritated
Lung cancer – uncontrolled cell division in the lungs