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- movement of molecules or ions from high to low concentration
Epiglottis ; S&F
- S: elastic cartilage;
- F:covers the voice box to make sure food is routed into the esophagus.
– membrane that encloses each lung
– sensory cells that sense the drop on pH
Explain why the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system are so inter-linked.
CV system distributes O2-rich blood throughout the body, and the respiratory system replaces O2-poor blood with O2-rich blood via the lungs.
Describe the overall structure (s) and functions(s) of the Respiratory System.
- S: The respiratoty tract (nose to lungs and back);
- F: gas exchange (O2 and CO2) filters incoming air, maintains blood pH and bodytemperature, produces sound
List in order the parts of the respiratory tract – air flow.
Nose – pharynx – larynx – trachea – bronchus – bronchioles -- alveoli
Nose ; S&F
- S: openings to the pharynx;
- F: allow air in and out
Pharynx ; S&F
- S: Funnel-shaped cavity commonly called the“throat”;
- F: Passageway for air, First line of defence - tonsils
Larynx ; S&F
- S: Triangular, cartilaginous structure, 2 vocalcords, Opening in the middle;
- F: passes air between the pharynx and trachea, Createssound (voice)
Trachea ; S&F
- S: A tube of connective tissue and smooth muscle(windpipe), Lined with cilia and mucus;
- F: connects the larynx with the bronchi, Filter - keep the lungs clean
Bronchi ; S&F
- S: Startswith two main bronchi;
- F: passage ofair from the trachea into the lungs
Bronchioles ; S&F
- a. S: about 1mm in diameter with thinner walls;
- F: passage of air
Alveoli ; S&F
- S: elongated air sacs;
- F: gas excahnge by diffusion
List and describe what happens during the 2 phases of ventilation (breathing).
- 1. Inspiration – an active process of inhalation that brings air into the lungs
- 2. Expiration – usually a passive process of exhalation that expels air from the lungs
List and discuss the 2 types of breathing control that the body has.
- Nervous control: Respiratory control center in the brain (medulla oblongata) sends out nerve impulses to contract muscle for inspiration, involuntary
- Chemical control: 2 sets of chemoreceptors sense the drop in pH: one set is in the brain and the other in the circulatory system
Upper respiratory tract infections:
- Sinusitis – blockage of sinuses
- Otitis media – infection of the middle ear
- Tonsillitis – inflammation of the tonsils
- Laryngitis – infection of the larynx
Lower respiratory tract infections:
- Pneumonia - infection of the lungs
- Tuberculosis - bacterial infection
- Pulmonary fibrosis - inhaled particles
- Emphysema - alveoli are damaged
- Asthma – bronchial tree becomes irritated
- Lung cancer – uncontrolled cell division in the lungs