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2012-10-18 20:15:05

Chapter 9 biology
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  1. Diffusion
    -  movement of molecules or ions from high to low concentration
  2. Epiglottis ; S&F
    • S: elastic cartilage;
    • F:covers the voice box to make sure food is routed into the esophagus.
  3. Pleura
    – membrane that encloses each lung
  4. Chemoreceptors
     – sensory cells that sense the drop on pH
  5. Explain why the cardiovascular system and the respiratory system are so inter-linked.
    CV system distributes O2-rich blood throughout the body, and the respiratory system replaces O2-poor blood with O2-rich blood via the lungs.
  6. Describe the overall structure (s) and functions(s) of the Respiratory System.
    • S:  The respiratoty tract (nose to lungs and back);
    • F: gas exchange (O2 and CO2) filters incoming air, maintains blood pH and bodytemperature, produces sound
  7.  List in order the parts of the respiratory tract – air flow.
    Nose – pharynx – larynx – trachea – bronchus – bronchioles -- alveoli
  8. Nose ; S&F
    • S:  openings to the pharynx;
    • F: allow air in and out
  9. Pharynx ; S&F
    • S: Funnel-shaped cavity commonly called the“throat”;
    • F: Passageway for air, First line of defence - tonsils
  10. Larynx ; S&F
    • S: Triangular, cartilaginous structure, 2 vocalcords, Opening in the middle;
    • F: passes air between the pharynx and trachea, Createssound (voice)
  11. Trachea ; S&F
    • S: A tube of connective tissue and smooth muscle(windpipe), Lined with cilia and mucus;
    • F: connects the larynx with the  bronchi, Filter - keep the lungs clean
  12. Bronchi ; S&F
    • S:  Startswith two main bronchi;
    • F:   passage ofair from the trachea into the lungs
  13. Bronchioles ; S&F
    • a.      S: about 1mm in diameter with thinner walls;
    • F: passage of air
  14. Alveoli ; S&F
    • S: elongated air sacs;
    • F:  gas excahnge by diffusion
  15. List and describe what happens during the 2 phases of ventilation (breathing).
    • 1. Inspiration – an active process of      inhalation that brings air into the lungs
    • 2. Expiration – usually a passive process of    exhalation that expels air from the lungs
  16. List and discuss the 2 types of breathing control that the body has.
    • Nervous control: Respiratory control center in the brain (medulla oblongata) sends out nerve impulses to contract muscle for inspiration, involuntary
    • Chemical control: 2 sets of chemoreceptors sense the drop in pH: one set is in the brain and the other in the circulatory system
  17. Upper respiratory tract infections:
    • Sinusitis – blockage of sinuses
    • Otitis media – infection of the middle ear
    • Tonsillitis – inflammation of the tonsils
    • Laryngitis – infection of the larynx
  18. Lower respiratory tract infections:
    • Pneumonia - infection of the lungs           
    • Tuberculosis - bacterial infection
    • Pulmonary fibrosis - inhaled particles
    • Emphysema - alveoli are damaged
    • Asthma – bronchial tree becomes irritated
    • Lung cancer – uncontrolled cell division in the lungs