BIO FINAL: pt. 2

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BIO FINAL: pt. 2
2010-05-04 22:01:39
key terms concepts

key terms and concepts
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  1. ecology
    • the study of interactions of organisms with each other and in their enviroment
    • understanding what sets distribution limits
  2. habitat
    a place where a population of individuals live
  3. habitat can also be defined as:
    • 1. the presence of relatively large organisms (provides special structure, ex. coral reef)
    • 2. predominant physical features (ex. interdial, dessert, deep sea)
    • 3. other limiting factors (fire prone, disturbed)
  4. population
    group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed and live in the same habitat
  5. population applies to:
    one species at a time
  6. community
    populations of all species that occupy a given habitat
  7. ecosystem
    community and physical and chemical enviroment
  8. biotic components of an ecosystem
    • 1. producers
    • 2. consumers
    • 3. decomposers
    • 4. derivatives
  9. producers
    autotrophs, input energy into the ecosystem
  10. photoautotrophs
    • derive energy from photosynthesis
    • ex. plants, algae, some microorganisms
  11. without producers
    the ecosystem would colapse
  12. chemoautotrophs
    derive energy from chemosynthesis
  13. hydrothermal vents
    where tectonic plate meet and super heated water is forced up through rock, bringing black smokers up with it
  14. hydrothermal vent ecosystems are based around
  15. consumers
    all heterotrophic animals
  16. categories of consumers
    • herbivores
    • predators
    • parasites
  17. decomposers
    mostly heterotrophic fungi and bacteria that break down the remains of dead organisms and feces
  18. decomposers always
    recycle back into the ecosystem
  19. antartica has no
  20. detritivores
    organisms that feed on particles of organic matter
  21. abiotic components
    • 1. sunlight
    • 2. body temperature
    • 3. freshwater
    • 4. disturbance
    • 5. other (pH, nutrients)
  22. disturbance
    an event that damages physical landscape and kills organisms
  23. niche
    conceptual description of resource limitation and abiotic/biotic conditions that allow organisms to survive and reproduce
  24. fundamental niche
    • range of conditions under which an organism can survive and reproduce in the absence of predation and competition
    • can be tested in a lab
  25. fundamental niche is set by:
    physiological limits
  26. realized niche
    a portion of the fundamental niche where limits are set by predators and competitors