List the two categories of the Autonomic Nervous System.
What is the primary function of the ANS?
Regulate organs to maintain homeostasis.
Describe the general anatomy of the ANS?
List the neurotransmitters released from the following neurons:
Parasympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
Sympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
Where do preganglionic neurons originate?
In the thoracolumbar spinal cord
Describe the general structure and linkage of neurons in the sympathetic nervous system.
Short preganglionic neurons to sympathetic chain.
Long Postganglionic neurons from chain to effector organs.
Ganglia linked together in sympathetic chain.
Describe the sympathetic pathway to and from the sympathetic chain.
Preganglionic neurons exit the ventral root of the spinal cord and enters the spinal nerve. Axons leave the spinal nerve as white ramus and enter the sympathetic ganglia. Ten they communicate with the postganglionic neurons.
Postganglionic neurons leave the ganglia as gray ramus and re-enter the spinal nerve. they then travel to effector organ in the spinal nerve.
Describe general parasympathetic nervous system pathways and anatomy.
Preganglionic neurons originate in brainstem or sacral spinal cord. These long preganglionic neurons extend to ganglia near the effector organ where it synapses with the postganglionic neuron.
Short postganglionic neurons from ganglia to effector organs.
List the cranial nerves of the parasympathetic nerves.
Oculomotor Nerve (3)
Facial Nerve (7)
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (9)
Vagus Nerve (10)
What spinal nerves are part of the parasympathetic nervous system?
List and describe the two types of cholinergic receptors.
Nicotinic cholinergic receptors : Open channels for cations (NA & K), depolarization
Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptors : G protein coupled, effect depends on target cell.
List and describe the locations of cholinergic receptors.
Autonomic postganglionic : Nicotinic cholinergic
Effector organ for parasymathetic : Muscarinic cholinergic
Skeletal muscle : Nicotinic cholinergic
Are all adrenergic receptors coupled to G proteins?
Describe the affinity of each type Adrenergic Receptor.
A1 : Greater for Norepinephrine than epinephrine
A2 : Greater for Norepinephrine than epinephrine
B1 : Equal for Norepinephrine and epinephrine
B2 : Greater for epinephrine than Norepinephrine
B3 : Equal for Norepinephrine and epinephrine
Describe the location of each type of Adrenergic Receptor.
A1 : Most vascular smooth muscle, pupils
A2 : Some vascular smooth muscle, adipose tissue
B1 : Cardiac muscle, Kidneys
B2 : Some blood vessels, smooth muscles
B3 : Adipose tissue
Describe the normal responce envoked by the stimulation of each type of adrenergic.
A1 : Usually Excitatory
A2 : Usually Excitatory
B1 : Usually Excitatory
B2 : Usually Inhibitory
B3 : Usually Excitatory
All Beta Adrenergic Receptors activate what?
What is the autonomic neuroeffector junction?
A synapse between efferent and effector organ in the autonomic nervous system.
Describe the events that occur at a Neuroeffector Junction.
Action potential arrives at varicosity.
Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open.
Ca2+ triggers exocytosis of neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitter binds with receptors on effector organ.