Ch 9-11 Anatomy and Physiology- muscle

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toribloom
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Ch 9-11 Anatomy and Physiology- muscle
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2012-10-22 15:38:52
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muscle
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  1. -
    Bones joined by fibrous tissues, no joint cavity, immovable,
    Fibrous
  2. 3 types of fibrous bones?
    • Sutures- skull
    • syndesmoses- radius-ulna joint
    • gomphoses- Peg-in-socket (tooth)
  3. The joint between the two parietal bones?
    suture
    gomphoses
    symphyses
    suture
  4. Articulating bones?
    Cartilaginous
  5. What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?
    Synchondroses- immovable, epiphyseal plate in children, joint between costal cartilage of 1st rib and sternum, hyaline cartilage binds bones together

    Symphyses-  Hyaline cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone and is fused to an intervening pad of fibrocartilage

    There is limited movements in these joints which are designed for strength and flexibility

    •  Examples include intervertebral
    • joints and the pubic symphysis of the pelvis
  6. Which joints are designed for strength and flexibility?
    gomphoses
    symphyses
    synovial
    symphyses
  7. Which joint is immovable, and is the epiphyseal plate in children?
    syndesmoses
    synchondroses
    symphyses
    Synchondroses
  8. A joint that has a joint cavity, freely movable diarthroses, limb joints, reinforcing ligaments?
    Synovial
    gomphoses
    sutures
    synovial
  9. Name the 5 parts of a synovial joint.
    • Articular cartilage
    •  joint (articular) cavity
    • Articular capsule
    • Synovial fluid
    • Reinforcing ligaments
  10. A flattened, fibrous sac is a _____.
    bursae
  11. A _______ _______ is an elongated bursa wraped around a tendon.
    tendon sheath
  12. Rounded end of one bone protrudes into a “sleeve,” or ring, composed of bone (and possibly ligaments) of another
    Only monaxial movement allowed

    Examples:
    joint between the axis and the dens, and the proximal radioulnar joint
    Pivot 
  13. Similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement
    Each articular surface has both a concave and a convex surface                                                         
    Example:
    carpometacarpal joint of the thumb
    Saddle
  14. Biaxial joints permit all angular motions
    Examples: radiocarpal (wrist) joints,
    and metacarpophalangeal (knuckle)
    Condyloid
  15. The shoulder and hip joint which are freely moving synovial joints, are considered to be;

    saddle
    ball-and-socket
    gliding
    ball-and-socket
  16. Which muscle is the sucking, whistling, blowing muscle?
    Buccinator
  17. Raising eyebrows?
    Frontalis
  18. Kissing muscle?
    Orbicularis Oris
  19. Smiling muscle?
    Zygomaticus Major
  20. Pouting Muscle?
    • Mentalis
    • depressor anguli oris
  21. Head flexion muscle?
    Sternocleidomastoid
  22. Look of horror?
    platysima
  23. Smiling muscle?
    Zygomaticus
  24. Blinking muscle?
    Orbicularis oculi
  25. Hugging muscle?
    Pectoralis major
  26. Shoulders back muscle?
    Rhomboid (major)
  27. Taylor's muscle, longest muscle in the body?
    Sartorius
  28. Flexion of lower leg?
    • Biceps femoris
    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus
  29. Extension of lower leg?
    • Vastus lateralis
    • Vastus medials
  30. Dorsal flexion and inverting of the foot muscle (toes up)?
    Tibialis anterior
  31. Plantar flexion(ballerina)?
    • Gastrocnemius
    • soleus
  32. Flexion of the arm (at elbow)?
    biceps brachii
  33. Extension of the arm at the elbow?
    triceps brachii
  34. Extension of the head (look at the sky)?
    trapezius
  35. Abduction of the arm (any lifting of the arm)?
    Deltoid
  36. adduction of the arm?
    latissimus dorsi
  37. The bowing muscle?
    iliopsoas
  38. Crunches or sit-ups muscle?
    rectus abdominus
  39. Pronation of the hand(palm back)?
    • Pronator teres
    • Pronator quadratus
  40. Supination of the hand(palm forward)?
    supinator muscle
  41. Flexion and lateral movement of the wrist?
    Flexor carpi radialis
  42. Flexion and medial movement of wrist?
    Flexor carpi radialis
  43. Extension and lateral movement of wrist?
    Extensor carpi radialis
  44. Extension and medial movement of wrist?
    Extensor carpi ulnaris
  45. Forceful leg extension?
    Gluteus Maximus
  46. bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint is called ________.
    flexion
  47. What movement is when the joint angle is increased?
    Extension
  48. Movement away from the midline is?
    Abduction
  49. Movement toward the midline is called ________.
    adduction
  50. What is the motion for anterior movement?

    protraction/retraction
    protraction
  51. Which is the motion for posterior movement?
    protraction/retraction
    retraction
  52. What is dorsiflexion?
    flexing the foot, bringing the toes up
  53. What is plantarflexion?
    pointing the toes (ballarina)
  54. Bringing to bottom of the foot in toward the other foot is called?
    inversion
  55. "tilting" the foot outward?
    eversion
  56. What is subluxation?
    A partial dislocation
  57. _____ is displacement of a bone from its normal position.
    inversion
    luxation
    circumduction
    luxation
  58. What is the movement when you "draw" a cone with your arm?
    rotation
    circumduction
    supination
    circumduction
  59. When you supinate and pronate your hand this movement is called _______.
    rotation
    adduction
    circumduction
    rotation
  60. Name the 3 Arthritis?
    • Osteoarthritis-Wear-and –tear
    •  Rheumatoid Arthritis- autoimmune
    • Gouty Arthritis- uric acid crystals
  61. Which arthritis is wear and tear?
    osteoarthritis
  62. Which arthritis is cause by autoimmune?
    Rheumatoid
  63. Which arthritis is due to uric acid crystals in the joints?
    Gouty
  64. an autoimmune disease that destroys the receptors 
    for ACh.  Usually first appears in facial muscles and
    commonly includes drooping eyelids.  Meds to inhibit the breakdown of ACh or suppress the immune system seem
    to have variable results depending on the severity of 
    the disease.
    Myasthenia Gravis
  65. _______ _____  is the inability of myosin to detach from actin binding sites due to lack of ATP. 
    Rigor Mortis- peaks about 12 hours after death and then diminishes overthe next 48 to 60 hours.
  66. ______ _____ is the constant, slightly contracted state of all muscles, which does not produce active movements.  This state of partial contraction keeps the muscles firm, healthy, and ready to respond to stimulus.
    Muscle tone
  67. _______ _____ is s group of inherited muscle-destroying diseases where muscles enlarge due to fat and connective tissue deposits, but muscle fibers atrophy
    Musclular Dystrophy
  68. What causes muscle striation?
    Sarcomere – region of a myofibril between two successive Z discs
  69. What are the parts of the Sarcomere?
    • A Band – length of the myosin filaments (“dArk”)
    • I Band – area between adjacent
    • A bands (“lIght”)
    • H Band – area between thin filaments in one contractile unit
    • Z Disc – anchoring structure for actin and elastic filaments
  70. the shortening of the ______ is due to an overlapping of actin and myosin filaments and not a shortening of the filaments themselves.
    sarcomere
  71. the shortening of the sarcomere is due to an overlapping of ____ and _____ filaments and not a shortening of the filaments themselves.
    actin, myosin
  72. The _______ _______ ______ is the shortening of the sarcomere is due to an overlapping of actin and myosin filaments and not a shortening of the filaments themselves.
    sliding filament theory
  73. The ___ ____ muscles are more efficient at using oxygen to generate more fuel (known as ATP) for continuous, extended muscle contractions over a long time. They can go for a long time before they fatigue. Therefore, they are great at helping athletes run marathons and bicycle for hours.
    slow twitch
  74.  ____ twitch fibers use anaerobic metabolism to create fuel, they are much better at generating short bursts of strength. However, they fatigue more quickly. They generally produce the same amount of force per contraction. Having these fibers can be an asset to a sprinter since she needs to quickly generate a lot of force.
    fast
  75. 2 ADP + 2 ADP = 1 AMP + 3 ATP.

    myokinase/ creatin kinase?

    Is this aerobic or anaerobic?
    myokinase, anaerobic
  76. Finish the equation for creatine kinase.
    Creatine + phosphate + ADP= Creatine + ____.

    Is this aerobic or anaerobic?
    ATP, anaerobic
  77. The ____ _______ ____ ____ is an anaerobic fermentation that uses gylcogen stored in muscles or glucose from the blood. This pathway produces enough ____ for 30-40 seconds of maximum activity.
    glycogen-lactic acid system, ATP
  78. The ______ filament is composed of _______- shaped like miniature golf clubs.
    thick, Myosin (protein)
  79. What are the two types of protein actin in thin filament?
    • G actin (globular subunits)
    • F actin ( fibrous strands) 
  80. Which actin protein contains the tropomyosin?
    F actin or G actin?
    F actin
  81. What is troponin?
    "Uncovers" the binding site for the myosin "golf club" to attach. To create a muscle contraction.
  82. ____ ____ build up lowers pH of the sarcoplasm rendering enzymes ineffective. 
    Lactic acid
  83. Resting potential is polar/nonpolar?
    polar
  84. When Na+ goes "in that is called depolarization/repolarization?
    depolarization
  85. What causes repolarization, Na+(sodium) or K+(potassium)?
    K+
  86. Which receptors allow Na+ to cross the membrane causing depolarization?
    ACh receptors

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