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When you do not know which person completed which survey. In your experiment you did not have the participants writing down any kind of identifying information.
Define Belmont Report
This report defined the principles and applications that have guided more detailed regulations and hs informed the American Psychological Association Ethis Code. Canada's TCPS are consistent with this.
Define Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC)
An organization sposored primarily by CIHR and NSERC and whose purpose is to oversee the ethical use of animals in science in Canada.
Define Concern for welfare
This principle refers to the need for research to maximize benefits and minimize any possible harmful effects of participation.
An accomplice of the experimenter. Usually someone who knows what is going on in the experiment and comes in to play a certain role.
Kept secret. Sometimes you will have information that is extremely sensitive and you will be asked to keep it confidential. This means that only authorized people should be allowed to access this information.
Occurs after the completion of the study. This is the researchers chance to deal with any issuses of withholding information, deception, and potential harmful effects of participation. The researcher should also further educate the participants on the purposes of their study and what results they expect to find. The debreif is supposed to be a way to lead to less negative effects on participants. (ex. emotionally if they are told their IQ is low when really we have no idea we just made that up).
- Occurs when there is active misrepresentation of information.
- Ex. Milgram experiment has two types:
- 1) there was deception about the purpose of the study
- 2) Participants becoome part of a series of events staged for the purposes of the study.
Define Ethics Code
This provides an overview of how far professional ethics extends for all psychologists. It is what all psychologists must abide by when running experiments.
Define Exempt Research
- This is research in which there is absolutely no risk and it usually does not require REB review when it:
- 1) only employs publicly available information that is legally accessible
- 2) only involves observing people in public places without any intervention or interaction by the researcher and no individuals can be identified when presenting results
- 3) Uses data that have already been collected and are completely anonymous
The fabrication of data. We must be able to velieve the reported results of research.
Define Informed Consent
- Potential participants in a research proect should be provided with all information that might influence their decision about whether to participate.
- Participants should be informed about:
- 1) purposes of the study
- 2) risks and benefits of participation
- 3) their rights to refuse or terminate participation in the study.
This principle addresses issues of fairness in recieving the benefits of research as well as bearing the burdens of accepting risks. any decisions to include or exclude certain people from a research study must be justified on scientific grounds.
Define Minimal risk research
This means that the risks of harm to participants are no greater than risks encountered in daily life. Approval by the REB can be delegated to a single member rather than considered by the whole committe.
Define Respect for Persons
This principle states that participants are treated as autonomous; they are capable of making deliberate decisions about whether to participate in research.
Define Risk-Benefit Analysis
In decisions about the ethics of research we must calculate potential risks and benefirts that are likely to result.
Define the Three Rs of "Good Animal Practice in Science"
- Replacement: involves replacing the use of animals or avoiding the use of animals altogether.
- Reduction: involves minimizing the number of animals being used.
- Refinement: involves modifying procedures to minimize pain and distress.
Discuss the three core ethical principles oulined in the Tri-Council Policy Statement.
- 1) To show respect for persons: Researchers must respect the autonomy of participants. Meaning they must enable people to choose participation freely.
- 2) To show concern for welfare: Must attempt to minimize risks associated with participating in research.
- 3) To show justice: researchers must treat people fairly and equitably by distributing the benefits and burdens of participating in research.
List and describe some of the potential risks and benefits of research.
- Potential risks to participants could include factors such as psychological or physical harm and loss of confidentiality.
- Along with any risks there is also the need to consider the costs of not conducting the study if the proposed study is the only way to collect potentailly valuable data.
Describe why informed consent is used despite the potential challenges to obtaining it.
Informed consent is needed to abide to the respect for persons principle. Participants must be able to say they know what the study is about and are making a decision to particpate based on knowing all the risk factors etc.
Describe the purpose of debreifing research participants.
The purpose of debreifing is to remove any negative effects the study had on a particpant. If for example the particpant was deceived it is necessary to explain why this was what had to happen. This also gives the researcher a chance to offer the participant extra help in dealing with any pscyhological problems or feelings they are having.
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